Midterm #2 Review 30 page review of all articles studied, and major terms defined in the course. Very thorough, and each contributing 7 members received a grade of over 80 on the final exam.
This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 30 pages of the document.
Risk environments are created by sudden breakdowns or more gradual changes in socioeconomic and cultural
relations. Such conditions create channels, and niches for effective transmission of HIV/AIDS. They are the
intersections of socio-cultural, political, economic and environmental factors that create favorable conditions for the
spread of diseases and epidemics in particular places and times. The term is coined by Barnett and Whiteside in their
article entitled, Why Africa? Therein they discuss HIV in the nation as well as the factors that aided in its
development. In Africa some risk environments, include: Uganda, Tanzania, Congo and South Africa. The fact of
the matter is that the geographical location of a nation is a major determinant of its position as a risk environment.
As differing continental determine the climate of the nation, this largely determines the agricultural system therein,
and thus the size of the population. In Africa the population density is extremely sparse, as a result infrastructure is
insufficient, and services are expensive. Accordingly, this creates an environment of inequality, disorder, *and
poverty, being the ideal conditions for the development and sustainability of HIV. What further complicates the
schema is the fact that it is more common in Africa than anywhere else in the world to be infected by disease. As a
result of all of these factors, Africa is a nation wherein HIV can flourish and thrive. Nations rampant with HIV have
been colored by motifs of inequality, radical changes and civil unrest. One such African nation is Uganda, wherein
the increase growth of ethnic, regional, and class differences created the conditions necessary to allow for the
effective transmission of HIV. Divisions of society shaped the lines of conflict and tore the polity to pieces, and this
all began in the 19th century. The epicenter of the epidemic was Buganda. Buganda after being colonized by the
British, and having their feudal system turned into one of landowners and tenants, made the cotton industry a pivotal
operation to ensure the growth of their economy. Africans were meant to remain in the rural areas, producing the
cotton, and trade was to be conducted by Asians who were imported to Buganda for strictly that purpose. Soon,
these positions became problematic. Society became torn and Asians were segregated against, and boycotts were
organized against them. Violent divisions emerged in the 1960s and the government had made a distinction between
petty traders and the Asian commercial class who were encouraged to stay in Uganda. African society understood
this as preferential treatment and viewed the Asians as a threat. Dramatic changes in prices of cotton and coffee
made the situation worse; people were isolated so to neutralize their perceived threat. The magendo or pilgrimage of
greed developed a system of illegal distribution, drawing large quantities of cash into the black market. In 1979 the
government regime was overthrown by a combined Tanzanian and Ugandan invasion from the south into Uganda,
across the Kagera River and into Rakai District. These factors of inequality, disorder, poverty allow for Uganda to
be recognized as a risk environment, leading to the first reports of HIV being reported in the area of the country
along the border in 1982. Illegal economic practices continued and flourished, these conditions of unrest, poverty
and instability were what classified Uganda as a risk environment, leading to its position as an epicenter of the
epidemic in Africa.
- Risk environments are intersections of socio-cultural, political, economic and environmental factors that
create favorable conditions for spread of diseases and epidemics in particular places and times
- Risk environments are created by sudden breakdowns or more gradual changes in of socioeconomic and
- Risks environments create channels, pathways and niches for effective transmission of HIV
- A few examples of countries that face a risk environment or have faced one are listed below:
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- South Africa
- (More about each kind of risk environment in the Essay Answer on ―Disease‖
- Different constellation of historical forces but overarching factors: inequality and lack of social cohesion
An intersection of socio-cultural, political, economic and environmental factors that create favorable conditions for
spread of disease and epidemics in particular places and times. Risk environments are created by sudden
breakdowns or more gradual changes in socioeconomic and cultural relations.
Risk environments create channels, pathways and niches for effective transmission of HIV>
Risk environments are present in Uganda, Tanzania, DRC and SA. There is different constellation of historical
forces but overarching factors: inequality and lack of social cohesion.
Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.
Risk environments occur in Uganda. Development of a risk environment and increased susceptibility in Uganda has
much to with the growth of ethnic, regional and class differences in Ugandan society. In Uganda, marked divisions
in society became lines of conflict that tore a recently established polity to pieces. Also in Rakai the position of
women, warfare and civil unrest combined to make Rakai into a risk environment. Tanzania – ‗development‘, pop.
Movement and susceptibility
• The first cases of AIDS in Tanzania were reported in the north west of the country, in Kagera region, across the
border from Rakai, in 1982
• Tanzania is a risk environment where rapid change is associated with what is often described as ‗development‘
• Integration of the locality into a system of global relationships affected livelihoods, demography, and people‘s
• Result was that people began to inhabit new niches of risk with increased susceptibility to infection
Rearrangement of people‘s lives also reordered desire and exposure to disease, particularly sexually transmitted
infection. Kilimanjaro. Migrant husbands in town; semi-deserted wives on the mountain; HIV/AIDS – a situation
tragically encapsulating in one storyline the lethal combination of social, personal environment and economic
change, developing risk environment and disease niches DRC A violent history; constant unrest since independence;
a state corrupt to the core: it is hardly surprising that conditions were in place for an epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Gender
relations as well are regulated by retrogressive legislation. Taken together, we once again have important
constituents of a risk environment
2. Sexual Behaviour paradigm
- Sexual Behaviour Paradigms – focus on supposed sexual behaviour of Africans as main driver of epidemic
- Versions of Paradigm accent:
1. Patriarchy, Marriage and kinship:
Many other researchers blame the ―exotic‖ nature of marriage and kinship systems prevalent in traditional
African society for the African AIDS crisis
Proliferations of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in both urban and rural settings are thus products
of deeply ingrained promiscuous sexual behavior
Polygamy is not synonymous with promiscuity
Polygamy doesn‘t automatically produce rapid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases
It all depends on marital norms (if you sleep around = risk of AIDS)
Its argues that patriarchy gives men the incentive to acquire as many wives as possible because of the
values of children as economic assets, and, as such, promotes polygamous behavior outside of marriage
2. Homosexuality and AIDS (the myth of bisexual African Homosexual):
The mythical male homosexual is bisexual and will be a major source for spreading aids.
He will have homosexual relations in urban centers and heterosexual relations with their spouses in rural
areas. Creating a high risk, poly partner, poly sexual environment
This entire theory is established without a thread of evidence, not enough sate for the study.
3. Urban Sexuality:
Urban sexuality has been blamed for Africa‘s AIDS crisis
Central to the proliferation of AIDS in urban areas is the widespread nature of prostitutions
Opportunities for women are considered to be better in urban and rural areas and such opportunities include
sexual strategies for gaining access to economic resources from men.
- Sexual Behavior Paradigm Proponents blame spread of epidemic on ―peculiarities of African sexuality and
reproduction customs, traditions and behaviors and neglect significant factors such as colonial history,
poverty and underdevelopment
- Premises of paradigms are, bluntly put, quite racist or border on racism, or more charitably, suffer from
cultural stereotyping and ethnocentrism
- The result: what they refer to as ―overgeneralization syndrome‖ – assertion of continent-wide
generalizations from limited studies, often based on questionable assumptions
- Instead of unfounded generalizations, what is important is to understand the context in which sexual
behavior may or may not be a driver
- The task is to understand how sexual behavior is shaped by interplay of individual and structural and
environmental factors which vary across time and place
- Sexual Behavior Paradigm and Delayed Reaction to Epidemic by ―encouraging‖ HIV/AIDS denialism
Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.
―Perceptions and Misperceptions of AIDS in Africa‖
Authors: Joseph Oppong & Ezekiel Kalipeni
The idea of sexual behaviour paradigm: The sexual behaviour paradigm can be understood in regards to how
people have been researching sexual behaviour (especially related to AIDS research), and how there‘s a disconnect
between what is being researched (the individual) and what should be taken into account. In other words,
determinants of sexual behaviour should be seen as a function not only of individual and social but of structural and
environmental factors as well.
Explanation: Current knowledge confirms that sexual behaviour, which is the primary target of AIDS prevention
efforts globally, is deeply embedded in individual desires, social and cultural relationships and environmental
processes so, sex takes place in context. Because of this, sociocultural factors surrounding the individuals must
be considered in designing AIDS prevention interventions. Besides, larger issues of structural and environmental
determinants play a significant role in sexual behaviour. Thus, giving information alone is not sufficient to induce
behavioural change among most individuals.
There has been too much of a focus on individual behaviour and how you can change people individually. This has
undermined the need and capacity of research to understand the complexity of HIX transmission and control. How
so? Because focus on the individual, means that you‘re focusing on the individual psychological process and this
ignores the interactive relationship of individual behaviour with its social, cultural and economic dimensions, and
thus it misses the opportunity to fully understand crucial determinants of sexual behaviour.
Sexual behaviour paradigm proponents blame the spread of the epidemic on ―peculiarities of African sexuality and
reproduction customs, traditions and behaviours and neglect significant factors such as colonial history, poverty and
Premises of paradigms are, bluntly put, quite racist or border on racism or more charitably, suffer from cultural
stereotyping and ethnocentrism. The result is what they refer to as overgeneralization syndrome – which is an
assertion of continent wide generalizations from limited studies, often based on questionable assumptions.
Based on sexual behaviour important driver of HIV epidemic
Sexual behaviour embedded in individual desires, social, cultural and power relations and environmental processes.
Instead of unfounded generalizations, what is important is to understand the context in which sexual behaviour may
or may not be a driver. In other words, the task is to understand how sexual behaviour is shaped by interplay of
individual and structural and environmental factors which vary across time and place.
Sexual behaviour paradigm
• Gould traces the origins of the AIDS epidemic to African monkeys and argues that initial denial by African leaders
in several countries escalated its spread
• Larger issues of structural and environmental determinants play a significant role in sexual behaviour
• Thus, giving information alone isn‘t sufficient to induce behavioural change among most individuals
• Focus on the individual psychological process ignores the interactive relationship of behaviour in its social,
cultural and economic dimensions and thus misses the opportunity to fully understand crucial determinants of sexual
• Societal norms, religious criteria, and gender – power relations infuse meaning into sexual behaviour and facilitate
or impede both positive and negative changes
3. Juridical Statehood
The transfer of sovereignty to African rulers did not change the basis of statehood in Africa. The vision of a
functioning post-colonial Africa is far from reality as can be observed that many of the region's countries possess
juridical statehood but lack empirical attributes. Assuming a Weberian definition of the state, empirical statehood
refers to an administrative organization that enjoys a monopoly on the exercise of legitimate force within defined
territorial boundaries. A number of African political entities lack control over the legitimate exercise of coercion
within their boundaries, but they are nonetheless recognized ("juridical") by the international system as states and
derive significant resources from that recognition.
Even if other indicators of empirical statehood are employed - for example, financial self-sufficiency, leadership of
national political communities, or performance of basic services such as road maintenance - many African political
entities fare poorly. Statehood is not rooted in domestic relations. Rather, in Africa it is sustained by the
international system. The continent's states persist as internationally recognized and funded "juridical entities" or as
"quasi-states" without sufficient domestic bases of support. This post colonial dynamic effectively continues
patterns of statehood that developed under colonialism.
You're Reading a Preview
Unlock to view full version