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Final

POL320Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: John Stuart Mill, Man Man, Human Nature


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL320Y1
Professor
Simone Chambers
Study Guide
Final

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POL320 Final Exam Semester 2 Summary Notes
19th Century
I. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
II. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831)
III. Karl Marx (1818-1883)
IV. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Themes
Turning inward
Modernity
The ideological wars of modernity
Post-modernism
Enlightenment: self-consciousness = world dominated by darkness, lack of light optimism, progress,
pushing forward, applying reason
19th C: turning inward, rise of rationalism, new identity, modernity, reflection, drawbacks, issues
o Mill Hegel Marx
o Nietzsche ~ beginning of post-modernism, radically critical of modern world
Liberalis: Pertaining to Free People
1. Liberal education necessary for free people (not vocational/useful) expand horizons, better
citizen
2. Liberality virtue of generosity, give freely, concrete & abstract meaning (money, time, attitude)
3. Liberalism political/ideological free society
Ancient vs. Modern Liberty
1. Collective/political vs. individual/private free from tyranny; democracy (self-rule/determination);
express itself in political power, join people w/ politics vs. individual, vs. gov’t, over/against political
power
2. Contingent/historical vs. pre-political/abstract (modern freedom = essentially free)
- Mill = individual, Hegel = wants to reconcile ancient collective community w/ modern
individualism, Marx = debatable
Historical Roots of Modern Liberalism
1. Against religious conformity
a) Freedom of thought & conscience
b) Individual rights & freedoms
2. Against absolutism
a) Freedom from arbitrary incursion from the state
b) Rule of law & constitutionalism
3. Against ascribed status
a) Economic freedom
b) Capitalism

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Reformation religious dissent, Luther breaks, priesthood of all believers, bible translated into vernacular,
expands people’s immediate access to religion
o Wars of religion toleration as second best
Absolutism push for freedom against arbitrary incursion from state, demand for rule of law
o Economic interests, new forces, achieve status through work push of capitalism, commerce
Neoliberalism against religious conformity, broader notions of individual freedom
19th Century Liberalism
Spirit of reform
Rise of welfare liberalism
Equality as a necessary condition of liberty
- General welfare of society, overall utilitarian assessment, also look @ education, working conditions as
augmentation of freedom for welfare, society
Philosophical, Political, Ideological Liberalism
1. Philosophical (or moral) liberalism: natural right liberals, Kantians, utilitarians, Hayekians, etc.
2. Political liberalism: civil and political rights for the individual, rule of law, constitutionalism, popular
sovereignty. Are we all becoming liberals? End of history thesis.
3. Liberalism as ideology: social welfare liberals, classical liberals, conservatives.
John Stuart Mill
Pure rationality = not enough (tension b/n rationalist utilitarian & person moved by sentiment)
Utilitarianism
1. Consequentialist principle: the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the goodness or
badness of the results that flow from it.
2. Hedonist principle: the only thing that is good in itself is pleasure and the only thing that is bad in itself is
pain.
3. Egalitarian/individualist principle: each shall count as one.
4. Aggregative principle: seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
- intuitive, self-evident; cost-benefit analysis; moral theory: hard to escape fact that doesn’t start w/ Kantian
principle that ppl can’t be used purely as means
Mill's Misgivings With Utilitarianism
Individual is subordinate to group: tyranny of the majority's happiness
Omitted aesthetic dimension of life: coherence and harmony of a life, passion for honour, pursuit of
noble actions, etc.
- individual vs. collective; omitted the value of noble life, aesthetic greatness, poetry; higher/lower pleasures
Utilitarianism with a Twist
Perfectionism
Quantity vs. quality of pleasure
Higher and lower pleasure

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"it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be a Socrates dissatisfied
than a fool satisfied"
Elitists or egalitarian?
Liberty in General
1. The new tyranny: the majority
2. Two instruments of tyranny: laws & opinion
3. Definition of liberty: pursuing our own good in our own way
4. Justification of liberty: utility not natural right
5. Limits to liberty:
a) Harm
b) Other regarding action
6. Spheres of liberty: conscience, lifestyle, association
7. States in their nonage?
- dangers inherent in democracy itself (e.g. tyranny of majority) will always be a minority limit tyranny,
expand liberty of individual develop institutions to maintain/max freedom of each
- defend freedom on grounds of utility (instrumental value) & greatest # of happiness (progressive being,
perfectionists); progress @ individual & societal level = objectively good for Mill
- no right = absolute; society’s obligation to create minimum of respect/dignity for all
- states in nonage utilitarian argument ‘civilized communities’ (developmental view of civilizations)
- progress (paternalistic, culturally imperialist) benign/moral obligation to raise up others
Freedom of Thought & Discussion
It is never right to suppress an opinion (even when that opinion is a minority of one)
1. The minority opinion may be true.
2. Even if the minority opinion is false.
3. Most opinions are partially true and partially false.
Marketplace of ideas
- Aware of fallibility; chilling effect argument; inquisitive/progressive society/lead to truth; warming effect
(dissent & innovation); challenge & defend (otherwise dead dogma)
- Marketplace of ideas, open discourse & deliberation = catalysts for progress
Individuality
1) Kant vs. Mill: individual vs. individualism
2) Individualism as cultural ideal
G.W.F. Hegel
Dialectical. Reconcile oppositions.
- Individual & the world; rational agent @ home in the world; overcome dichotomies (e.g. mind & body);
free will/choice & laws/norms/conventions; minorities vs. majorities
- How history can be read as project that reconciles opposites
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