POL101 (2012-13) Semester 1 Notes

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

NOTE: THIS DOESN’T CONTAIN ALL LECTURES, JUST A MAJORITY. POL101Y - Introduction (Kopstein/Wong) Mon. 10th Sept 2012 History of Human Consciousness  History of Philosophy  Monarchs, leaders = steal ideas o War: the clash of ideas o Big ideas organize human society  Ideas, the clash of, etc.  Reality: the idea (eg. Napoleon - Hegel) Idea of Freedom  Idea that it could never be surpassed o Therefore, history is over  No more BIG ideas to truly challenge the big idea (i.e. democratic liberalism) Ideas  1806: The big ideas are essential (Hegel), 99% is ignored  1940s/1989, Fukuyama: Still a few big ideas to come (Nazism, communism, etc) o All have been defeated o "History is over" L.D. is the end stage o The Real Realm: Challenges to liberal democracy have been defeated o ^^ Ideas, consciousness  Averages challenge liberal democracy (no real challenge) o Dictatorships/communism: Powerless idea compared in LD o Christian/Jewish/Islam fundamentalism: terrorism (weakness, no one wants to follow)  What is left? o Peace. Trade. Democracy. No wars of big ideas (LD wins) o Big challenges of liberalism? Ideological challengers? Introduction - W  Politics: What will the world look like next, what will come? How to shape it.  Fukuyama looks through the eyes of the victor (LD)  Huntington is skeptical, in reaction to Fukuyama World Order according to Huntington  Fukuyama o Narrow reading of world history o To claim 'history is over' [in the west]  Perhaps describing the end of conflicts b/w states  Not the end of ideas, but Western ideologies o His story of the past = shaped by Cold War categories  Categories imposed by Soviet ideology/American ideology o Imagined a world of liberal peace and prosperity (allusory)  Universalist Civilization o A universal civilization can only be brought by Universal power o Realists: What matters most is national interests  Because of this, we continue to live in a world of competition and conflict o Huntington: World still has conflicts of ideologies  Debates, policies, etc.  Military, wars, etc.  Illusion of Harmony  Essence of a society, not objective makers Huntington  Doesn't imagine a world of peace  Sees new fault lines, units of analysis  Sees the world being adapted along civilizational lines  Redrawing of world map - divided by civilizations vs. countries Clash of Civilizations  Huntington asks how we will behave, why x behaves that way  Difference = conflict, interests - conflict, kinship - conflict  Civilizational differences are the sources of conflicts of the future o Party of the conceived arrogance of the west  Fukuyama: The west has won > the rest o Future of liberal peace and prosperity  Huntington: The west VS. the rest o The rest = significant to Huntington o The Rest  The Rise of China  Authoritarianism  Beijing Consensus (rising non western model of modernity)  Testing the West o 3/5 top economies are not western o Sees a future of conflict o Fears the end of history  (F) The End of History vs. (H) A Transitional Moment POL101Y - Modern Democracy (Prof. Wong) Mon. 17th Sept. 2012 Introduction  Apartheid (Ah-par-tied) in South Africa o Based on Segregation  Immorality Act: white/black sexual relations illegal  Group Areas Act: segregation  Pass Law: have a pass, to enter designated areas  Resettlement Act: force black communities to resettle elsewhere o Political, social and economic segregation (until 1994)  Colours were able to:  Vote  Travel  Live with the rest of society o Fukuyama: Attractiveness of democracy, equality  Cannot take democracy for granted  The Third Wave (Huntington) o A third wave of democratic transitions throughout the world o 1975: 46 (29%) democracies in the world o 2010: 114 (59%) '' '' '' '' ''  Summary 1. Democracy's Virtue 2. Democracy's Fragility 3. Democracy as Process  Building Democracy's Foundations  Choosing Democracy  Making Democracy Work Democracy's Virtue  Polyarchy: political order where citizenship can oppose/vote out highest officials n government  20th Century System: adult population is eligible to vote on decision-makers selected in "fair, honest and periodic elections"  Key Virtue: Participation o Political order in which all have a say o All have the ability to participate o Decisions are all collectively made vs. the few and powerful  Liberty o Sections 1 & 2 (CRF) o Ability to disagree with each other & government o Mediated through institutions  Equality o Democratic/Political citizenship  In political sphere, we are all equal as individuals  One person = one vote  The rich = the poor, etc. o Notion of liberalism, modern liberalism  Liberalism = about individualism  Participate as equal individuals protected by rule of law  Rule of Law o Means of which we do/make/play politics o Governed by rules, constitution, etc. o Law > Man  Pluralism o Sum of all of the above o Making compromises amidst pluralism o Differences and cooperation  Institutionalized Uncertainty o Elections: about the ability to elect our representatives o Empowers us to vote a government in and out o Being voted out = return again vs. jail, death, etc. o Belief of losing, one can try winning again  Eg. Liberals: lost, can regroup and try again o Uncertainty allows for continual elections Democracy's Fragility  Breakdowns (1974-2010) o (26) 16% of democracies have fallen and returned to democracy o (27) 16% of democracies have fallen and not returned  Democracy is extremely fragile  Thailand o Installation of democracy (1990) o Supreme Court bans political parties (2006) Democracy as Process  Dynamic process  "The right to vote is a conferred right in every case... This parliament says upon what terms men shall vote" - Hugh Guthrie, MP, 1920  Canada o Voting only allowed for white men o 11% of people could vote (white propertied men) o 1898: Non whites and non propriety men could vote o 1918: Women's vote (white only) o 1960: 'Status Indians' vote o 1963: All racial minorities to vote  United States o 1920: Women's vote o 1965: Racial minorities vote  Evolutionary process  1. Foundation 2. Choice of democracy 3. Choices we make that make democracy work (I) Building Democracy's Foundation  1. Modernization Theory: theory of how society is modernized o Economic modernization o Social modernization o Political modernization  2. Economic Transformation o Transform economy  Traditional (farmers, etc.) --> Transform (trade, roads, etc)  Integrating technology (ie. steam engine) engaging in industrial revolution  Deepening of trade  Growth of firm  3. Economic Development o Traditional Economy (a farmer: enough to survive) --> Wage earners (firm, factory) o Economic modernization --> Economic growth  Growing the economy = rise of middle class o Modern economic society: large middle class  4. Demographic Change o As a society modernizes, economy modernizes = urbanization, modern infrastructure o Society becomes more urban  Working women  Transformation of household (traditional --> modern)  5. Social Change o Literacy, providing modern education o Implementing modern sciences, healthcare, etc. > Traditional remedies o Secularization of society (the church becomes less important) o The Modern Citizen  6. Demand for Political Rights o Rights, the rule of law o Modern Citizen: a say in how politics is run  Compelling: explains how the west develops  EG. Grand civilization history of England Modern Democracy  The "Transition Zone" o Socities entering transition zone (middle income country) o Those societies tend towards democracy  Social Modernity: social fabric of democracy o Associations/groups: within them people engage, discuss, etc. o Socially engaging with one another o Understanding being part of a collective fate o Income + Social fabric of associational life  Social Capital o Italy  Northern Italians = more satisfied  More socially involved in life  Sourthern Italians = less satisfied  Fewer civic groups  Conclusion: social capital (part of social modernity) is involved o Democracy's foundation rests on a certain political culture  Modernization of ones economy  '' of ones social world  '' of ones political culture  Democratic Cultures o Democracy evolved in northwestern Europe o Drawn from western experiences  Cultural Obstacles (acc. Huntington, The Third Wave) o Idea of 'Asian values'/Chinese Confucianism  Prioritize the collective > individuals  Asian societies privilege hierarchy > pluralism  Supposedly hostile to democracy  Asians don't have 'cultural DNA' to be hospitable to democracy o In order for democracy to have foundations, one must have cultural modernities also (II) Choosing Democracy  Democracy has to be chosen (as a society) for it to be effective  South Korea - Roh Tae Woo (1987) o Brutal military regime o Chosen to be authoritarian dictator o He chose democracy  Massive social movements  Instead of repressing with military, there will be elections  Foundations for democracy were around, but the choice had to be made  Chile - Pinochet (1988) o Socialists were elected o Economic reform (aka modernization), Chilean economy begins reform o 1980: There will be a referendum for society to choose if he stays (in 1988) o He chose to give Chileans the choice to remove him from office  South Africa - FW de Klerk (1989) o Internal/external pressure, begins negotiations o Chooses to engage in constitutional reform (92/93) o First democratic elections (1994)  Soviet Union - Gorbachev (late 1980s) o Wanted to revitalize communist party of Soviet Union o Wanted to eliminate corruption --> Society wants to as well = End of Soviet Union  When? o Bottom-up pressure, demands: middle class movements, etc. o International pressure: case of South Africa (U.S., Canadian pressure, etc.) o Legitimacy crisis: no longer viewed as 'legitimate' by their own people (III) Making Democracy Work  Institutions - "rules of the game" o Not impartial or neutral, they have consequences o Consequential, Reflect Goals o Make rules to reflect certain goals o Vary among democracies, idea that democracies are universal  Rights and Limits  Winners and Losers Presedentialism and Parliamentarianism  Presidential: U.S o Presidential and legislative are elected separately o They operate separately o Sees institutional separation b/w President and Congress o Serves to divide > reconcile  Parliament: Can. o The executive branch reflects the legislative branch o Exec: Cabinet, is derived from legislative branch o Voting for candidates of political parties, leader of the party is PM o Encourages coalitions: power-sharing, moderation  Parliamentary systems are good for young democracies or democracies with ethnic divisions  The Rules of the game have consequences  Presidential systems are bad for new democracies (Lind)  Different institutions have different effects (Horowitz) Electoral Institutions  Canada o Con., NDP, Lib., Green, BQ o FPP: First Past the Post System  Don't need a majority, just need a plural of votes to win your seat  Person winning in the riding merely needs to win more than others  "Winner take all" consequence  Eg. Conservatives 39.5% of votes = 54.2% of seats)  Mismatch between popular vote and the # of seats you take o PR: Proportional Representation  Voting for a party, percentage how much they win = percentage of seats in house  Concept of Parliament is more representative of population  Eg. Conservatives 39.5% of votes WOULD = 122 seats (39.5%)  NDP 30.6% of votes = 95 seats (30.6%) o Goal is to be more moderate, no radical positions POL101 - Liberal Democracy (Prof. Kopstein) Mon. 24th Sept 2012 Benjamin Constant (1767-1830)  Swiss born, French intellectual and politician  Before: Fervent liberal (liberalism) o Freedom  Context: French revolution and aftermath  Today: considered a conservative  Constantian notion of liberalism o Ensures the president is not a tyrant Model Rejected  Liberty of ancients o Participatory  Freedom consisted in the act of governing/being governed  Participating in public life o Direct  No legislature apart from assembled citizen o "Public" > "Private" liberty  Freedom of the community as one  Self-governed, ruling oneself but not ruled by others  Not ruled by a hereditary monarch  Private: individual pursues what they want  Public: the community o Freedom is collective o Dependent upon a class of people who didn't engage in commerce or work  Free from the concerns of household, economics, etc.  Public life v. household (private economics) o Big decisions were decisions on war  Fear: foreign domination, conquered  Collective decisions about war (taking and protecting)  Rights o No rights in ancient model Liberty of Moderns  Not so much "freedom to" as "freedom from" (Isaiah Berlin)  Modern Freedoms o Legal Protections o Limited Government  Only has certain claim for its authority  Not all encompassable o Freedom = individual > communal o Driven by 'commerce' and private property > war  Driven by the nature of our society (commercial)  All conceptions of liberty follow  A fundamental distinction  The constitutional state/idea of constitution o Aristotle: government as its practiced > written document o Us: contract between a gov and people  Lists duties and obligations of both sides  Limits the power of the government o Constant: needing sets of institutions and principles Contradictions of Constant  Modern liberty > an ancient liberty and pre-modern "despotism" (tyranny of kings, FR Kings)  Moderns care more about "freedom form"  Representative government > Direct government o Our government occurs indirectly o Self-deliberates on legislation o Our participation in legislation is indirect  All great thinkers contradict themselves Ancient Liberty & Plato  In last dialog he offers a prophecy to which moderns deem liable  Advocated the pursuit of consumerism, for all else is lost (?) Traditional Society  Scarcity o Most people were farmers (grew essentials, nothing more) o The slightest turn of government/weather could cost everything  Non-Market Societies o No currency > trades, or multiple currencies o Market days: bartering and trading o Markets were rare among non-market relations  Family Life o Extended families, collective family o All family members punished if one is punished o Eg. Vendetta against that general family o Collective > Individual  Affective Orientation o Eg. Athenian's response to loss in Sicily: crying for 3 days o Affect (family) v. Contract (prof)  Ascriptive Roles o versus achievement o Station in life is predetermined Political Authority & The State  The (modern) State? o Def. A state exists when there is a monopoly of a use of force in a given territory o The org. that uses the monopoly is the state o Difference between forceful people v. an organized monopoly o Nation's State (19th century), Empirial state o Reinforces private v. public authority  Notion of the public as something separate from private  Traditional Society: No distinction between public and private authority  The distinction has to be constructed, doesn't exist until then  Authority relations based on personal dependence, love, and affection  No clear lines of territorial authority o Eg. To whom was peasant x? Etc.  Authority acted as a protection o Nobles provided protection o Peasant's were assured that others would hurt them o Feudal society  Authority threatens to hurt or protect for purchase (?)  Eg. The Godfather - left over of traditional society within modern society  Defeats organized crime with force or war  Rise of the modern state, authority o Evolves from 17th century onward  Public Administration o Versailles: to intimidate, create a sense of the public above private interests o Washington: intimidating, emphasize the public and private, the power of state  Creation of Modern State: Louis XIV o Everything he did was public o Act of doing in public: the act of state reproducing itself  Taxation and system of personal retainers of "King" o Competed with local lords for power o Modern Bureaucracy o Standing Army (po-po)  Meant to conquer ones own country  Be assured there were no alternatives  Eg. Could be populated by nobles, but paid by King  Out of the idea comes Sovereignty o Declaration of controlling force w/i a certain territory + capacity to do so Liberalism: Four Genetic Features  A Different Summary of Constant  Individualism: not family or clan o Unit of analysis for liberal  Proceduralism: Rule of law, limited constitutional bureaucracy o Bureaucracy works toward the senate rules o Treat everyone exactly the same, equality/equity o Bureaucracy protects o Opposite = personal relations (illegitimate, violates bureaucratic procedure)  Markets: Economic and political o Commerce o Everything geared toward market (work, laws, education, etc) o Market dominates, extends to politics (choosing leaders) o Notion of freedom and choice  Toleration: religious, ethnic, gender - relies on hypocrisy o Private beliefs (personal) < Public beliefs o Agree to disagree o Hypocrisy: treat someone as if you respect them  To the extent that these aren't present, not dealing with a liberal order/society Liberalism: Development Stages  Transformation: revolutionary/evolutionary break from monarchical rule  Consolidation: exclude those social elements that threaten new order o Property restrictions  Inclusion: include those elements that, if not included, will rebel against the order  Never perfected, always evolving always, new groups demanding inclusion POL101 - The Rise of the West & Marxism (Modernity) (Prof. Kopstein) Mon. 1st Oct 2012 Origins of Modern World Economy  Twin "Revolutions" 16th-19th centuries o Agricultural o Industrial  Agricultural Revolution o Hyperbole: "word revolution" o Rise of agricultural surplus  Industrial Revolution o 18th century England o Designated revolution  1760: 2.5 million pounds  1837: 366 million pounds (16 fold increase in 50 years) o Fashion changes o Iron (ten fold increase)  1788: 68,000 tons  1830: 678,000 tons o Changes in domestic consumption Consequences of Industrial Revolution  Changes in perception o Luxuries became decencies o Decencies became necessities  Sociological Changes/Distribution was uneven o i.e. middle class o manual labour --> entrepreneurial/professional status  Social Results o Capacity to produce surplus o Increasing complexity of division of labour  Labour becoming more specialized  Depending upon others o New forms of social consciousness  New ways people are thinking of their place in the world  No longer stuck in birth state o No longer accept authority unquestioningly Political Consequences  Demise of Royal Absolutism  Victory of Parliament over King  Selection of leaders by competitive election  Rise of Political Parties  Universal Rights without reference to class o As society becomes wealthier, more people participate and rule  Need to accommodate new groups w/i politics o Entrepreneurs o Urban working class Karl Marx  Questions o How to analyze a society?  Communist Manifesto o Where does one look first?  Queens and Kings? Leaders?  Dominant ideas?  What kind of food? Drink? o What does one focus on?  Marx & Materialism (& Feuerbach) o Begins with Feuerbach and Critique of German Idealism (Hegel)  Idea that philosophy is the history of big ideas  Hegel is dominant in ideas  Feuerbach: real history has to start with the critique of the most powerful set of ideas o Materialism: What is 'God'?  We take everything good inside of 'us' and putting it outside of ourselves  Turning it into this 'alien' thing, us = bad, Him = good  God is all that is good in us and lord it over us  "God didn't create man, man created God"  Deconstruction of German idealism o Marx: This doesn't go far enough, not radical enough  Point is to change the world, must understand what drives the world to do so  What drives the world? o Why do we need religion?  Marx: Injustice. Must go to the material causes.  Methodical Materialist  Christianity: Puts forth this human model of Jesus  Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism o Hegel: Consciousness creates society o Marx: Consciousness doesn't create being, "being creates consciousness"  How you are and live determines how you think o Materialist conception of history is begun  Marx becomes the basis of materialism and consciousness  Materialist Conception of History o Humans make their own means of survival o Work is natural, humans are creative o History is history of class struggle and forms of domination  History is struggle, but material struggle  Class: people who either own or do not own the means of production  All societies have been divided ^^ o Culture, ideas, art, law, morality, religion... o All determined by mode of production  "Superstructure"  Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism o Modes of Production  *Slave: people who own/are slaves  *Feudal: nobles and peasants  *Capitalist: capital owners, workers, etc.  Socialist/Communist: means of production controlled by all o * Only ever existed at his time, communism was a view into the future o History moves from one stage to the next  History of conflict  History of class conflict  Has meaning and movement  Materialist beginning, middle & end o Marx stands Hegel on his head  Conflict of material life > ideas How does History Unfold?  Exploitation  New classes grab power for particular interest o They claim it is in universal interest (cloaked)  They create an ideology and exercise state power o State is nothing more than executive committee of ruling class  Even under capitalism, 'they' exploit labour and power is brought into question  If history is the history of class struggle, it ends when class struggle ends.  When does class struggle end? o Marx's analysis of social orders  Feudalism --> capitalism  Analysis of capitalism o Immiseration and class consciousness  Marx: Condition of working class will become worse  Begin to understand their misery  Not just a 'class' in themselves < for themselves Story of Capitalism  Feudal Society: two classes of Noble's and peasantry  Rise of new classes (bourgeoisie/capitalist) and industrial/urban proletariat  Bourgeoisie seize power in name of all, but exploit proletariat/working class  Will be displaced by those it exploits: revolution Capitalism  Creates unprecedented wealth  It warps human relations & culture  Capitalist exploitation is at once the most subtle and most extreme  But workers (proletariat) will redeem: no exploitation and truth rather than ideology o Ideas will on longer be a mask for power  Marx: All history of evil/exploitation can be redeemed by workers  "The last shall be first", the meek inherit the earth  Religious theme, although Marx himself is anti-religious Marx: History & Politics  Liberal democracy is presented as an interest of all < interest of the working class o Formally free, but subject to the resources that you control o Formal freedoms vs. substantial reality o How can you exercise your freedoms if you're poor?  Marx: resource theory of power o "He who controls the gold, rules." o A student of capitalism  What does Marx mean by communism? Is it utopian and unrealistic? o The end of history: ownership was collectively in the hands of the workers o Marx: trying to give a scientific explanation of capitalism Contradictions of Capitalism  Production is a public activity, controlled by private hands  What is a revolution? Political vs. social revolution  When will the revolution happen? Free will vs. determinism o Communist Manifesto (last line): Workers all unite.  Problem of false consciousness. What if the workers don't want a revolution? Questions  Stabilizing mechanisms of capitalism (welfare state)?  What is the role of the entrepreneur/capitalist? o Marx never talks of entrepreneurs/capitalists  Is the state really just a projection of economic power? POL101 - Problems of Democracy (Prof. Wong) Mon. 22nd Oct 2012 Introduction  53 countries have succumbed to a breakdown of democracy --> totalitarianism, etc.  Democr
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