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Examples of possible essay & multiple choice questions for final exam

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

POL101 Tutorial th April 4 , 2011 Global governance, & governance beyond the state for one of the essay questions Neoliberal Institutionalism • Neoliberal institutionalism (theory of IR): complex interdependence, states are the relevant units of analysis, act according to their national interests • Realists think that international organizations are tools for the powerful to exercise their interests • Neoliberal institutionalists believe institutions matter in themselves • Zero-sum, positive sums • Mitigate the affects of anarchy; overcome collective action problems (individual has to take on a cost, or free ride assuming that someone else will do it; problem of organizing people into groups in order to do something) international organizations • Collective problems internationally are commons problems (how to manage common resources) • Everyone has an interest in free-riding, and hopes someone else will fix it What does global governance look like? • World trade organization sets up rules for how trade can happen, provided the rules of the game for international trade • Kyoto Protocol sets out goals & targets that countries should aspire to • G20, G8 deliberative forum (countries get together) • Different inter-governmental organizations in which countries get together to deal with certain issues • Functional specialization (world health organization that deals with global epidemics, international automatic energy agency meltdown in Japan) Challenges to global governance: • Collective action • Enforcement • Tension between the interests of the state (states answer to their own constituents, than figuring out a way to deal with issues such as climate change) AND the needs of cooperation • Participation global governance is supposed to be participatory, however some are more equal than others World Bank Reading: • Dysfunctional organization, the problem that is raised is one of organizational adaptation (you set up an organization, things change, but the organization does not = problem) • Organization no longer well adjusted to do what it was once supposed to do • People who work there are on short-contracts, they are more concerned about keeping their jobs • System only as strong as its weakest link (if a problem happens in one place it affects everyone) European Union • Only effective international governmental organization beyond the nation- state is the EU • Single common market, no barriers to trade within the union (potentially more integrated than Canada in a narrow-sense) • 1957 Treaty of Rome, European Court of Justice decided that this was a constitution (no one ever agreed that EU law was superior to national law) • Lisbon Treaty same as the Treaty of Rome, some characteristics of constitutional law • Key institutions of the EU: the court, the commission (supranational part, there is a commissioner from each country that ac
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