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Key Terms Midterm.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Joseph Wong

Affirmative Action: an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination; enforces demographic quotas; meant to prevent racist decision-making (Problems of Democracy, Oct. 24) Ancient Democracy: a participatory, direct form of democracy based on freedom of the collective over freedom of the individual (Constant and the Rise of Liberalism, Sept. 19) Balance of power: a system of alliances in which weaker states band together against stronger states, creating an equilibrium that generally prevents continental war (Cold War Realism, Nov. 28) Bipolarity: (as opposed to multipolarity, unipolarity, etc.) a distribution of power in which two states have the majority of the power and influence in the international system (Cold War Realism, Nov. 28) Bourgeoisie: according to Karl Marx, the ruling class that owns the means of production and exploits those who are beneath them (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26) Clash of Civilizations: a book by Samuel P. Huntington that reacts to Fukuyama’s ―end of history‖ theory; argues that Fukuyama presents an Eurocentric, narrow reading of world history, that ―liberal peace and prosperity‖ are illusory, and that what matters in the post- Cold War era are civilizational fault lines (Introduction, Sept. 12) Civilization: (according to Huntington) the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species; defined by both common objective elements, such as language, history, religions, customs, and institutions, and by the subjective self-identification of people *Class/Class Struggle: (according to Marx) the material struggle between the two major classes of society, the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat; the inevitable polarization of the two classes, the disappearance of the middle class (petite bourgeoisie), and the eventual uprising of the Proletariat to create a Communist society, abolishing private property as well as the ruling class (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26) Collective Action Problem: a situation in which multiple individuals would all benefit from a certain action, which, however, has an associated cost making it implausible that any one individually can or will undertake and solve it alone (Wikipedia); Communism: a political theory founded by Karl Marx which advocates for a classless society in which all property is publicly owned and the State is the executive committee of the ruling class: the Proletarians (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26) Constitutionalism: a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law (Wikipedia) Democracy: a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them. Deterrence: the doctrine by which states use intimidation and threats to prevent an enemy attack; as in the Cold War, both states are afraid to use their nuclear weapons due to the guarantee that such an attack would result in the complete annihilation of both states (Cold War Realism, Nov. 28) Duverger’s Law: a principle that asserts that a plurality rule election system tends to favour a two-party system (Wikipedia) Economic Interdependence: the theory that the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states ( Equality of Opportunity: political equality; concerned with the procedures of democracy (Problems of Democracy, Oct. 24) Public Contestation: the right to advocate for individual views; that individuals have the same standing as anybody else Inclusive Participation: the rights of political equality are extended to all individuals Equality of outcome: political-economic equity; concerned with the consequences of democracy (Problems of Democracy, Oct. 24) Evolutionary Socialism: the belief that gradual democratic changes in a society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures, as opposed to revolutionary socialism which believes in the necessity of revolutions (Wikipedia); ultimately accepts and celebrates the tenets of liberalism, ceasing to view it as a form of hypocrisy (The Fascist and Communist Challenges, Oct. 17) First Past the Post: (as opposed to Proportional Representation) an electoral system in which a candidate does not need to win a majority, but a plurality; the number of seats is not proportional to the popular vote; allows for strong majorities and tends to moderate parties (Modern Democracy, Oct. 3) Hegemonic stability: a theory that states that the stability of the international system requires a single dominant state to articulate and enforce the rules of interaction among the most important members of the system ( Institutionalized Uncertainty: a key element of democracy, the guarantee against dictatorship and authoritarianism afforded by the ability of the people to vote a government out of power (Modern Democracy, Oct. 3) Institutions: in democracy, the ―rules of the game‖: consequences, rights and limits, winners and losers, etc. (Modern Democracy, Oct. 3) Leninism: Marxism as interpreted and applied by Vladimir Lenin; argues that evolutionary socialism could not have worked in Russia under conditions of authoritarianism, that workers would never create a revolution because their support could be bought with better working conditions and pay (trade union consciousness), and that a party and leadership were needed to bring them
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