POL101Y1 Lecture Notes Semester 2 (2).docx

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101Y1 Semester 2 NotesthWeek 18Monday December 9 2011Lecture NotesNationalism and Conflict The we feeling of nationalismsocially constructed and do not exist naturally but realMost political conflict in history was conflict between nations Look up left and right wingWhat is NationalismThe ideology of nations A nation is a group that wants to have its own state What is a nation A group of people who believe they share a common fate history culture and language Nationalism says that the state and nation should be congruent State should look after and share their cultureNationalism Only occurs under modern conditions Never before in human history did people insist that their leaders be of the same culture and never did leaders try to make the people share their common culture Its this need for congruence that needs to be explained Why only under modernity Kings and Queens did not share culture with the people they ruled it didnt matter People knew they were from Poland but did not consider themselves Polish Nationalism and Modernization High culture and low cultures European monarchs Latin and populations Vernacularssubcultures and languages that people would communicate in is commonIndustrial society and need for universalization of high cultureso people can understand each other People no longer live in isolation and communicate in small context now have to go to cities and work in projects together in large context and complex We all have context bound communications Modern world must turn dialect into language that all people can understand Thats what states do States ensure that we all share a common language and vocabulary for understanding our society and a common story that we tell ourselves about how we get here common understandings Key It takes one strand of the available vernaculars and cultures out there and christens it the winner This is what you are and what you are not In this way nations are constructed they are projects of elites sometimes competing projects They dont exist as things in themselves but are the products of aggregated individual beliefs But stakes are very high if YOUR culture is not adopted as the high and universal culture you face systematic disadvantage Ex Slovaks not considered Hungarian can not perform in government jobs Ex Ukraine national project Means On the edge of Russia The project of making a Ukrainian language 1Failed projects of created nationalism in provinces Ontario flag Ontario song Except QUEBEC nationalism based on language In industrial societies states are service organizations for providing common cultures education Seen this way nations dont create nationalism nationalism creates nations Identity is socially constructedbut the successful national projects are the ones that are made to feel natural Language politics They loose English wins They have the freedom to speak and write their native tonguepolitically irrelevant in rich nations because multiculturalism does not pose threat x identity parents will want their children to speak English so they will be rich but if they do not speak English perfectly they are disadvantaged Nationalism and SequencingSate first nation second France and BritainnationbuildingFrance forced people to speak French in 1900s Nation first state second Germany and Italy Ethnic Versus Civic Nationalism What is the basis of belonging political or culturalEthnic belonging based on history language and blood ThickGermans Jews commonPre political understandings of belongingThere is not Canadian national ethnic identity failed projects Civic belonging based on political allegiance reason consentThin To be an American means you share a common set of principlespledge allegiance to the flag NOT ethnicity United States should be called United Nations and United Nations should be called United States Canada Competition between these 2 principles Canada liberalism versus communitarianismLiberalism we are treated as individuals our sense of belonging is based on Canadian citizenship like a religious conversion we are civic liberal thats what makes for civic equality citizenship and ethnicity are fused but then we havecommunitarianismis not like religious conversion hyphenated Canadians we dont expect you to fully renounce your previous ethnic background and we expect that you will celebrate it and hope that will make you more Canadian you become Canadian by way of coming from somewhere else Canada multiculturalism is it real Country is wealthy enough figure we will not fall apart2 Week 19Monday January 16 2012 Lecture NotesGenocide and Justice Greatest global progress in building institutions and international legal response to GenocideHuge challenges and difficult choices that must be made in the wake in crimes against humanity Definition of Genocide Committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethnical racial or religious group1948 first international legal responseThe Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the crime of Genocide Killing members of the group Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in partImposing measures intended to prevent births within the group Forcibly transferring children of one group to another groupActs directed against political groups are excluded from this definition In law most critical part is to prove INTENT No institutional framework against the systematic killing of gender sexual orientation age disability Many existing legal holes in definition Crimes Against Humanity1945 The Charter of the International Military TribunalAtrocities as customary international crimes that justify international crimes that justify international criminal sanctions Murder Enslavement Deporation Imprisonment Torture Rape Other inhumane acts Limiting clause Committed against any civilian population not soldiers before or during the war not after war any occur outside the context of war it is not a crime against humanity it is situation specific War Crimes by Nuremburg Trials or violations of the laws and customs of war namely Murder Iltreatment Deportation for slave labor or for any other purpose of the civilian population or in occupied territory All war crimes are not crimes against humanity or genocide3
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