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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101Y1 Reading Summary CompilationOrdered in chronological order for your convenience Yeye Much love and appreciation for all submissions Hope that this document helps everyone greatly Good luck with your exams and have a good winter breakThe Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the ModernWeek 1Reading NotesstSeptember 212011Emma MurrayIntroductionComparing the liberty the ancients valued so much and the liberty that is precious to modern nationsFailure to distinguish between the two resulted in many evils during the days of revolutionFrance was force to enjoy benefits it didnt want and denied the ones it didPeace and freedom could only be found through representative governmentRep Gov was totally unknown to the people of antiquityHistoryMany claim traces of RepGov Among some ancient peoples ex Gauls SpartaSpartaWhat Sparta had was a monastic aristocracyThe power of the kings was limited by the magistrates not by elected officialsMagistrates were nominated by the peoplethere were only 5 of themTheir authority was as much religious as political they took part in the actual administration of Gov ie in the executive powerTheir power far from being simply a barrier against tyranny sometimes because itself intolerable tyranny True of all the magistrates even the elected onesGaulsThe regime of the Gauls quite resembled one that a certain party would like to restore to us1Priests enjoyed unlimited powerThe military classthe nobility had arrogant and oppressive privilegesPeople had no rights and no safe guardsAncient TimesThe mission of the tribunes in Rome was a representative one up to a pointThey acted on behalf of the plebeians who were reduced to harsh by the oligarchy when it overthrew the kingsPeople still exercised considerable political rights directlythey met to vote on laws and judge nobles who had been accused of wrong doingRome only had traces of the representative systemRepresentative GovernmentIts a modern discoveryThe condition of the human race in antiquity made it impossible for such a institution to existAncient peoples did not feel the need for it or appreciate its advantagesTheir social organization led them to want a kind of freedom totally different what representative government grantsModern LibertyWhat is modern liberty That of the English French etcIThe right to be subjected only to the laws and not to be arrested imprisoned put to death or maltreated in any way by decision of one or more individualsIIThe right of each person to express his opinion choose a profession and practice it dispose of his own property and even to misuse itIIIThe right to come and go without permission and without explaining what one is doing or whyIVThe right of each person to associate with other individualswhether to discuss their interests or to join in worship or simply to ll the time in any way that suits his fancy andVEach persons right to have some inuence on the administration of the governmentby electing all or some of the ofcials or through representations petitions or demands that the authorities are more or less obliged to take into considerationModerns regard the right to choose religion to the ancients this would seem criminal and sacrilegiousThe smallest of modern states are incomparably larger than the largest of ancient timesThere is a mass of humans beings that have the same basic nature with different names and social organizationWar proceeded commerce 2 ways of achieving same endCommerce is a attempt to get through mutual agreement something that one has given up acquiring through violenceStrong would never resort to commerceWar is impulse commerce is calculation commerce replaces warWar costs more than its worth no longer slavesall work must be done by free mentherefore they no longer have time to participate in the political system as intensely as previous societies The bigger a country is the smaller the importance allotted to each individualThe abolition of slavery less time for leisure political involvementThe daily discussions secret planning sessions would be fatiguing to the modernsindividuals are occupied by hopes and enterprise not wanting to be side trackedCommerce inspires men an intense love of individual independence supplies needs satisfies desires without government interferenceEvery time governments do buiss For us they do it worse at greater costCan hardly see indiv Influenceexercise of political rightsonly part of ancient benefitsIncrease of commerce and communication has multiplied the means of personal happinessMain aimto be secure in private benefits libertythe name for guarantees accorded by institutions of these benefitsIndiv Indep II First need of modernsshould never be asked to make sacrifices in order to establish political liberty none of the institutions that hindered II are admissible in modern times People have rights people cant be torn from whats important to them ex father and sonModern mouers are more complex and subtle would be distorted it you tried to define themonly way to reach and judge them is through public opinionGovernment can do things to people arbitrarily there would be a public out cryModerns want to enjoy our rights develop our own powers watch over the development of these powers in our children
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