POL101 Final Exam notes.docx

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101 Final Exam Notes Lectures: 1. Francis Fukuyama:  Democracy has remained as time has progressed – End of history  Challenges to liberal democracy have been defeated as ideas Samuel Huntington:  ‘’Universal civilization can only come from a universal power’’  No western conflicts, but more military spending and more conflicts in the world  Clash of different cultures and deeply rooted civilizations, different interests. 2. Modern democracy:  Democracy is the prominent model but also fragile and imperfect  Virtues: i. Liberty: freedoms with right ii. Equality iii. Rule of law iv. Pluralism v. Institutionalized uncertainty (Electing people in and out of power)  Modernization theory o Economic > Social > Political modernization 1. Economic transformation: traditional to advanced and industrial 2. Economic development: economic growth and transition from agriculture to city middle class. 3. Demographic change: countryside to city o Increase in standard of living o Last stage: Democracy  Focuses on individual liberty, separation of private and public sphere  Contradiction with Asian societies: o Hierarchy is a main value o Kinship o Focus on group over individual  Democracy needs to be chosen o Bottom up pressure o Legitimacy crisis, or international pressure  Practise: o Presidential: Executive and legislative are different o Parliamentary: Executive is derived from legislative o Electoral institutions 3. Constant and the rise of liberalism:  Liberalism: freedom from tyranny i. Ensured through the institutions of democracy Liberty of Ancients:  Collective freedom (to)  Public, direct participation  No commerce Liberty of Moderns:  Freedom from  Individual freedom and rights  Commerce, private property State:  A monopoly of a given territory by a force based organization Sovereignty:  Legitimacy of control in a given territory Liberalism:  Individualism  Proceduralism: rule of law, constitutional bureaucracy  Markets: economic and political  Toleration: religious, gender, ethnic Liberalism: Developmental stages  Transformation: break from monarchical rule  Consolidation: Exclude threatening social elements  Inclusion: Include elements that would rebel if not included 4. The rise of the West and Marxism  Industrial revolution in England i. Advanced production ii. Ability to produce surplus iii. Specialization of labor iv. Rise of political parties and parliament v. Universal rights  Karl Marx o Materialism conception of history o History is the history of class struggle o Culture, ideas, art, law, morality, religion – all determined by mode of production o Communism: power to the masses (Just in theory though) o Exploitation: State is controlled by ruling class that imposed their interests as universal. o A society in which creative potential is unleashed o ‘’False consciousness’’ in capitalism 5. Communism and Fascism  Salvationist ideologies, not to help human condition  Many deaths, holocaust – modern conception of human rights  Democracy does focus on the human condition Lenin:  Revolutionary movement under authority  Workers only focus on money though, not union Stalinism:  Industrialization  Collectivization  Terror and secret police - Led to famine, executions, arrests  Militarized state Nazism/Fascism:  Communism – equality  Nazism – hierarchy  Militarism, anti-Semitism  Do not look back at actions, no improvement – in contrast to democracy  Anti-modernism 6. Problems of democracy Democracy and equality:  Rules of the game (Institutionalize laws protecting rights)  Managing diversity (pluralism)  Institutionalized uncertainty (accountability, alternatives)  Equality, variations of democracy Conceptualizations of equality:  Equality of opportunity (participation, protests, equal rights)  Equality of outcome (Equality as a consequence, effect on groups) Challenges: 1. Collective action problem a. Low voter turnout b. Minuscule benefits in voting 2. Fallacy of democratic pluralism a. Institutional fragmentation, many veto points b. Ruling class has the most effect on decisions 3. Elite democracy a. Hierarchical political parties b. Need wealth, education, social networks to participate in elections Equality of outcome challenges: 1. Protecting the disadvantaged a. Inequality, racial discrimination in workplace 2. Protecting the majority’s will a. Dominant party system b. Concentration of political power 3. Unelected courts as policy makers a. Power of courts is more than the power of representatives in policy making 7. Democracy with Chinese characteristics  Contradiction to modernization theory – China is modernized but not democratic  Deng Xiao-Ping and China’s ‘’Four Modernizations’’ i. More market incentive ii. Modernizing industry iii. Foreign trade iv. National defence v. Foreign direct investment Democracy is a western liberal idea:  Asian privilege collectivity, prioritize hierarchy No Democratic issues in China:  No Legislative deadlock, chaos, debates Positive aspects of China:  Authoritarianism provides order  More efficient, faster decisions  Massive economic growth  Adaptive authoritarianism  Liberal economic reform 8. Experiments in Democracy Defining experiments:  Treatment/conditions  Assignment to treatment or control mechanisms  Random assignment  Casual inference: the difference in outcomes between treated and untreated subjects  Field: real world intervention  Natural causes: natural disasters  Survey/lab experiments: less natural, made up settings Federalism:  Generates jurisdictional boundaries  Federal government and provincial government  Some shared, some unique responsibilities  Not always clear Politicians:  Want to win office  Provide good public policy Tutorial 6: International relations:  Assumes it is between nations  Relationships between actors in world politics Theories:  Realism  Assumptions: o Statism: States are the most important actors. Power hegemony and cooperation between states. War is inevitable. o Security dilemma: Security of one state creates insecurity for another state. Ex, Arms race. o Self-help: All states should take care of themselves, and therefore increase military and focus on national interests.  Liberalism o More optimistic o Human nature is good o War is not inevitable o Cooperation o Security is not a main issue, because countries share common interests and issues o Trade relationships, mutual benefits  Neo-conservatives: o Focus more on the US as a mediator and influence in IR  Democratic peace theory: o Democracies do not go to war with democracies 9. The rise of great powers: International relations theory, uncertain realities, and the rise of China Democratic peace theory:  Democracies do not fight each other  Slow decision making – other alternatives Hard power:  Military force, spending Soft power:  Ability of a country to influence another country without military use  Investment  Economic power Principles of international relations:  Sovereignty: Respect for borders, taxation, military  Power: Ability to influence others with soft, hard, economic, military power o Unequal distribution of power  Anarchic: No world government, state, or police o Hard to enforce UN rules o No rule of law Hegemonic stability theory:  Order can be facilitated by a hegemon  No challengers to the hegemonic power Realist IR Theory:  IR is governed by an international system  Made up from states  Do not focus on what goes on in the state  Power projection, behavior of states based on how much power they have  National interest  Thus, constant conflict is assumed Power transition theory:  Rise of a challenger leads to a power transition Neoliberal Institutionalism  Global governance  Cooperation under anarchy  Assuming: anarchy, state centric system  Economic growth through positive sum  Institutions reinforce complex interdependence 10. Civilian violence and war  Democracy has violence and laws are enforced with violence  Assumption that war is state on state  State monopolizes violence Weberian state:  Monopolization of legitimate use of violence within a given territory  Civil war: collapse of state, collapse of sovereignty Pinkers war motives:  Fear  Honour  Interest Pinker:  Violence has decreased over time Rousseau:  Primitive societies are peaceful  Modern states sustain inequality Hobbes (before Rousseau)  State of nature is a constant conflict between everyone  Leviathan: A strong power that will enforce order and no one will be strong enough to challenge it  State can be seen as a leviathan Civilizing process:  Development of modern manners and morals  Decrease of violence with rise of modern state 11. Sovereignty and intervention  UN is the exclusive legitimizer of force in the international system  International commission on sovereignty and intervention, 2001  R2P: Responsibility to protect  Makes protecting human rights a duty, not just a simple possibility  Article 2.7: States cannot intervene in the internal affairs of another country  39: Security council decides when the states can intervene  Security council permanent members: US, Russia, China, France, United Kingdom Inviolability:  protects our right to self-rule  Fundamental duty: Do not negatively affect your own people through violence National security:  First duty of a state is to protect a its citizens from foreign attacks Human security:  Protection and provision of basic human rights Justifications for intervention:  Ethnic cleansing, actual or apprehended  Genocide, actual or apprehended Genocide:  The deliberate, systematic extermination of an ethnic group within a country, in which state may simply observe or actively take part in the killings Just war criteria:  Right authority  Right intention  Just cause  Last resort  Proportional means  Reasonable prospects  Exit strategy Intervener’s responsibility:  Responsibility to Prevent  Responsibility to React  Responsibility to Rebuild 12. Nationalism and Conflict  Ideologies of nations defend political and cultural interests of a group  All nation states have cultural minorities. Collective rights?  Example: USA, 12% black population with basic liberal rights. But discrimination and few collective rights if any. Citizenship:  Political rights rather than cultural o Loyal to political ideas  Some nations have less of a political view o Strong collective cultural identity (Germany, Korea) Nations:  People who believe they share a common fate, history, culture, and language  Projects of elites  Industrialization -> increased need for common culture, identity o Standardization of languages (during industrialization) o In industrialized nations, states provide common cultures o States = vehicles for creating common cultures Nationalism:  State and nation should be congruent  ONLY occurs under modern conditions o Cultures are protected by states o Nationalism creates nations  Nationalism came out of a sense of groupness, modernization Ethnic belonging:  Based on history, language, blood Civic belonging:  Based on political allegiance Canada:  Liberalism vs. communitarianism (individual versus group rights)  Multiculturalism o Giant cultural experiment 13. Tom Mulcair  Legislative, judicial, executive – strongly separated in the US  Parliament adopts laws Canada:  A lot of institutional differences with the US o Institutions focused on healthcare, geography, history Quebec:  Long history of social programs  1960’s o Started dividing on a constitutional level  Led to an absence of a democratic party, support in Quebec Canada:  Federal government has complete spending power o Social programs that focus on family care and employment simultaneously.  1968 language act o Attempt to improve bilingualism in Canada  Maintaining Quebec French, is vital in order to maintain harmony  Increase in Canadian debt o Need to focus on sustainability Tutorial 8:  Nationalism o Subjective, feeling, belongingness to a nation  Outward manifestation, ideology o Promoting a similar ideology  According to scholars o Ethnicity -> smaller o Nation -> larger  Could potentially be highly interconnected o Once the similarities are perceived as significant, nationalistic movements begin Theories  Primordialism (Gertz): o Ethnic and national ties related by blood, kinship  Constructivism (Gelner, Kopstein): o Nationalism is a constructed modern phenomenon o Majorly influential theory  “Ethnic roots” (Anthony): o Mixes first 2 theories  Nations are constructed, nationalism is modern, but it can be connected to the ancient world.  Connor o Nations are created at the expense of other languages and cultures within the nation.  Muller o A lot of solidarity that can lead to conflict  Ethnic cleansing, forced migration o Not all states are nation states:  Can be multiculturalist (propagates multiculturalism)  Can be multicultural  Very few nation states  Idea of creating nations and nationalism is being globalized in certain ways o Also propagating intra-state ethnic conflicts 14. Weber: Protestant Ethic  Why did the West get rich? i. Imperialism ii. Military superiority (Spain before England) Weber:  What made northwest Europe unique? o Protestantism and capitalism  Leaders of capital, high labor classes o Overwhelmingly protestant Protestant ethic:  Much higher degree of regulation of behavior than that which was demanded by Catholicism.  Protestantism adopts a stringent attitude towards relaxation and enjoyment.  Comes before capitalism o Karl Marx also recognized it  Weber: people are usually indifferent to religion when they are economically active o Distinguished other forms of capitalism as “economic traditionalism” o Modern capitalism is different from traditionalism ; it is found on the disciplined obligation to work as a duty  Modern capitalism: o Dominant characteristic – rigorous calculation, focus on economic success. Calvinism:  Predestination – only few people receive eternal grace o Hell or heaven?  Consequence: Intense psychological effect  Inner loneliness o Working hard eliminated doubts about salvation  Continues and coherent life of discipline, eradicating repentance and atonement o Thus, material world is the highest possible ethical evaluation Weber did not favour Protestantism Protestantism:  Monkish virtues o Irrational pursuit of internal life in heaven produces capitalism What about Japan?  No longer necessary to have that puritan ethos in capitalism o We are forced to do so  Weber: there is nothing beyond global capitalism o Impossible to get rid of it  Capitalism, bureaucracy are based on modern rationality  Capitalism – Iron cage o There is no real escape from capitalism modernity o Only brutal means can change capitalism 15. How the rest got rich Political economy:  17 century Dutch economy o Multicultural (trading expertise, knowledge, goods) o Innovation (Industrial innovations, mechanization) o Modern finance (first modern stock exchange, central bank involved in financial issues o Trade (Global trade domination, Dutch East India Trading Company)  Issued stock -> capital -> innovation -> ships -> trade with more countries -> sophisticated maritime insurance o “The Flute” – cheaper, less labor, shallow (can enter more areas, trade inland), larger cargo capacity Market principle:  Increase supply -> decrease the price o Economies of scale (lower cost per unit) o Increase consumption o Increased trade and market share  Not a value system or normative view  E.X. China: 40 million migrant workers, very cheap wages  Lower cost -> lower wages -> longer hours Principles of the Market Economy:  Assuming demand is constant, consumption is a function of price – the lower the price the better  Increase in supply decreases price -> increase in consumption  A decrease in supply increase price -> decrease in consumption o Consumers are vulnerable to the price Adam Smith  Invisible hand of the market rules  Intersection of supply and demand, un-federate  Implications: o Advantage (Produce what you have an advantage in)  Comparative advantage o Specialization  Efficiency -> lower cost -> lower price -> consume more o Productive efficiency o Universal division of labor  Exports and imports  Facilitated by trade  Free trade Cosmopolitical vision:  No government intervention o It distorts the natural order  Focus on the individual (not nations)  Universal equilibrium, peace and prosperity o Positive sum markets Should the “Market” be manipulated?  Smith – No. The invisible hand of the market should rule  Friedrich List, Alexander Hamilton – Yes. The visible hand of the government – for national power, should and can be manipulated o List: Smith is naïve  World is not positive sum  Nations matter  Not just individuals o List – realist, economic realist  Focus on nation states Angry Friedrich List:  Smith is presenting an English hegemonic view o From the dominant position o Free trade benefits England o Denies other nations the ability to rise o List – German nationalist perspective Worried Alexander Hamilton:  America had a backward economy at the time (Agricultural, no industry)  Same point as List  Hamilton – American nationalist perspective Mercantilism:  Direct response to the “Invisible hand of the market”  Political response to universalism  Focus on the nation state  Economic nationalism and self-reliance o Zero-sum world  Create dynamic comparative advantages o Can change over time o No absolute advantage  Visible hand of the government can alter prices o Distort the market o Government interventions (Subsidy, tax, tariffs)  Mercantilism as a practice predates List, Smith China – The world’s factory  Massive manufacturing sector  Special economic zones o Tax break for foreign businesses o Subsidy and manufacturing areas  Wage compression and labor division o Comparative advantage for China due to wage compression  Keep costs of input low -> increase supply -> decrease price -> increase exports English Navigation Act, 1651  Example of mercantilism  Custom tariffs on goods carried by foreign ships  Restricted Dutch imports into England  Increase price of foreign goods/ services -> decrease demand for foreign goods/services -> benefit English trading companies English Corn Law, 1815  Price fixing  Decrease in grain prices  Goods can be imported, but at a fixed price  Customs duty on foreign corn -> increases price of foreign corn -> decrease demand for foreign corn -> increase demand for cheaper English corn The devalued Japanese Yen  1945 destroyed industrial base  Exported (toys, automobiles, information technology) o Mainly to the U.S.A.  Japan’s exports rise – trade surplus o Due to devalued Yen o Made Japanese exports cheaper  Devalue currency (Yen) -> make exportable goods cheaper -> increase exportable supply and increase import consumption German Zollverein, 1818  England dominated the world economy  Internal free trade market (Germany)  Modern infrastructure system  Customs union on foreign goods o Tax, tariffs  Infant industry production  Increase price of foreign manufacturers -> decrease demand for foreign goods -> increased demand for domestic goods -> growth of domestic sector Markets or Policy?  Market logic – invisible hand (liberalism)  Visible hand of government (Realism) o Artificially manipulate price and market 16. Outliers or Models? Dependent development  What is development o Progress o Transformation, fundamental difference o Human development – micro level  Health, security, literacy, infant mortality o Equitable development  Income distribution, wealth  Social mobility  For gender, religion, race, geographic location o Capacity  Upgrade, nation’s economic profile, skill acquisitions  University, transformative capacity o Sustainable development  Environment, modes of energy industrial growth, diversification o Political development  Democracy, human rights, modernization theory o Focus on aggregate economic growth A theoretical conversation: The Cosmopolitical view  Adam Smith  Invisible hand of the market  Individual advantage o Specialization  Free trade -> efficient global economy o Increased productivity, peace o Positive sum The Mercantilist view  Nations matter  Cosmopolitical system – unequal o Negative sum, disproportionate benefit  Solution: o Equal competition – impossible o Extraordinary aid and government protection is necessary  Prescription: o Visible hand of government o Create a comparative advantage  Disrupt nature o Create industry  Have to distort the market Leninist View  Imperialism, emergence of capitalist monopolies o Opposite of free competition  Naïve notion of free competition -> Monopoly  Capital grows, richer class -> capital needs to expand  E.X. Dutch East Indian Trading company o Colonial expansion World Systems Theory  Inspired by Leninist/Marxist theory  Focus on consequences of Imperialism  3 main points: o World System is inherently exploitative o Truly global economy o Structural theory  Structure of global capitalism -> expansion structurally  Immanuel Wallerstein “The dependency school” o A systemic view of global capitalism o Liberal ideological hegemony o Monopolistic producers (MNCs) o Monopsonistic purchases (the North) o Massive buyers, monopoly on purchase  Able to set the price o Colonial legacy  Poor countries, left with nothing after colonialism  Economically underdeveloped, lack of skills, infrastructure  Little prospect of change  Structure of global capitalism o International system requires expansion, exploitation o Dominant “core” versus dependent “periphery” o Core: developed countries, monopsonistic buyers o Periphery: Poor, suppliers  Structural dependency  On low-value exports  On global north The Implications of Global capitalism  Adam Smith – Embrace it  Mercantilists – change it  Leninists – reject it  Cosmopolitical view – not about dominance  Mercantilist view – preventing dominance  Marxist/Leninist view – has to be about dominance 1960 – 1995, Rich countries became richer, poor countries remained poor  Communism was appealing in developing nations East Asian Miracle  Originally, note export oriented economies, mainly agricultural  East Asian tigers: South Korea, Taiwan, Japan  Rapid economic growth o Relatively egalitarian distribution of wealth o Growth with relative equity  Industrial upgrading and diversification o Economic modernization  Labor intensive manufacturing -> capital manufacturing  Export-led economic development o Domestic -> global market  World systems theory cannot explain the miracle Back to theory: explaining the miracle Neoliberal vindication o Good students of Ada
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