POL100 UofT St.George. Kopstein & Wong. Lecture notes in preparation for December 12, 2013 Exam.

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Professor Wong and Kopstein POL100 UofT Saint GeorgeSeptember 16 2013Democracys Virtue Democracy as a participatory govt and participating in collective decision making Freedom of press association speech right to oppose and dissent universally applicable Principles of democracy liberty virtue rule of law pluralism multiple points of viewideologies institutionalized uncertainty ability to lose politically and compete again Democracy fundamentally governed by constitution53 breakdowns of democracy since 1974 representing 32 of all democracies 26 of which returned to democracy 1963 saw all Canadians have the right to vote regardless of ethnicity or race Dynamics of democracy building choosing and making democracy work Democracy founded upon modernization theory characterized by economic transformationeconomic developmentdemographic change rural to urban migrationsocial transformation spread of education secularismdemand for political rights Social capital lending itself to political satisfaction Bowling Alone reference Sam Huntington theorizes that Confucianism and its derivatives in the Asian world are culturally hardwired to prioritize the collective and kinship over individual rights therefore making them inhospitable to democracySouth Korea installing democracy 1987 by Roh Tae Woo Chile 1988 by Pinochet South Africa 1989 by FW de Klerk Soviet Union late 1980s by GorbachevPush Pull factors of democracybottom up pressure demandsInternational pressureLegitimacy crisis preemptive strategic choiceMaking Democracies WorkInstitutionsrules of the game rights and limits winners and losers Presidentialism and Parliamentarianism Presidential system is executive branch versus legislative branchpromotes winner takes all systemParliamentary system reflects legislative branch promotes powersharing and coalitions First past the post system versus Proportional representation system Rules of the game are not impartial objective or neutral rather they are consequential and represent specific goals and vary among democracy September 23 2013Is the world becoming more democratic and peaceful Summer 1989fall of the Berlin wall Francis Fukuyama Hegel German philosopherHistory has a structure beginning middle and end1989end of historyWhat is the essence of historyHegel history is essentially the history of philosophyhuman capacity for understanding the worldNot kings queens presidentsWar we see people dying but in reality it is the clashing of ideas that is what people go to war for History of human consciousnessHistory of the big ideas that organize societyAncient medieval society liberal democratic stateEnd of historythe end of big ideas the final big ideaTheory alone transcends the poverty of the human conditionThere is no legitimate opposition to liberal democracyBig challengers to liberal democracy had been defeated in the realm of ideas Challengers lead by fear not convictionnot a legitimate alternative powerless ideaSO world of peace trade and democracyThere are wars but not wars of big ideas or if so liberalism winsLook for big ideological challengersIn this sense history is over Clash of Civilizations An examination of Huntingtons arguments Fukuyamas view was created at the end of the cold war a victors perspectiveHuntington writing in reaction to Fukuyama40 years 4 democracies to 114 But also 53 democratic breakdowns 50of those never returned to democracyHuntington much more pessimistic opinionHe believes that Fukuyama has a very narrow reading of the worldBelieves that it is only the end of history in the westDo we actually see liberal peace and prosperityThey are illusory Inequality contested citizenship exclusionCountries are still ruled by the need for power ex US need to project power in the worldFor Huntington it is not the world of peace Civilizational lines of conflicts Overriding question Who are we Not about countries political affiliations its about civilizationsAlternate divisions of the world western orthodox Islamic African
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