Key Concepts

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Political Science
Sean Uppal

Key Concepts + Explanations Clash of Civilizations “The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P.  Huntington, stating that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary  source of conflict in the post­Cold War world” Ancient Democracy Direct Democracy where participation was not open with  public opinion of voters was  remarkably influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theatres. Modern Democracy A Liberal Democratic state characterized by fair, free, and  competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of  powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of  an open society, and the protection of human rights and civil liberties for all persons. Liberalism Worldview founded on the idea of liberty and equality that generally supports the ideas of   free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade,  and a right to life, liberty, and property State Astate that is recognized as such by the international community Class/Class Struggle Related to Karl Marx and Communism. Class conflict, frequently referred to as class  warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to  competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. Materialism Matter is primary, and mind or spirit or ideas are secondary, the product of matter acting  upon matter. Proletariat Lower social class, usually the working class Bourgeoisie Middle Class, create wealth and own the means of production in society False Consciousness Marxist thesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society are misleading  to the proletariat, and to other classes. These processes betray the true relations of forces  between those classes, and the real state of affairs regarding the development of pre­ socialist society (relative to thesecular development of human society in general). Realism Whatever we believe now is only an approximation of reality and that every new  observation brings us closer to understanding reality Multiculturalism The doctrine that several different cultures (rather than one national culture) can coexist  peacefully and equitably in a single country. Ethnic Citizenship Where nation is defined in terms of ethnicity MutuallyAssured Destruction Cold War Theory stating that no one side would launch weapons at each other for fear of being destroyed themselves in retaliation The End of History • History should be viewed as an evolutionary process • Events still occur at the end of history • Pessimism about man's future is warranted because of man's inability to control  technology • The end of history means liberal democracy will become the only form of  government for all States. This form of government will be the last form of  government . Democracy Form of government where all citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives Institutions An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing  the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community Parliamentary System UK system of government. Fusion of powers with the leader being elected by a party not the public. Presidential System US system of government with a separation of powers. The president is elected separately. Responsible Government Governments are responsible to parliament rather than to a monarch or the imperial government Proportional Representation The number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number  of votes received First Past the Post UK system of voting Institutionalized Uncertainty • The ability to elect our representatives in government • Empowers us to vote a government in or out • Winners and losers: Losers do not get out • Can come back to fight again • Belief that if you lose today, can win tomorrow
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