Term Test 1 MC Section Study Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL 101 Democracy, War & Peace Benjamin Constant The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns (Sept. 20 ) Representative govt = modern discovery Modern liberty individual rights [& freedoms] individual is sovereign only in appearance, though independent in private life [sovereignty restricted & nearly always suspended; all ever done with it is to renounce it] Liberty of the ancients collectively but directly [collective freedom & the complete subjection of the individual to the authority of the group] individual is nearly always sovereign in public affairs but a slave in all private relations Commerce in ancient times = lucky accident (war); in Modern times war costs more than its worth, commerce Constant: Ancient liberty no longer applicable: cant any longer enjoy the liberty that the ancients had, consisting in constant active participation in collective power. Our liberty has to consist of the peaceful enjoyment of private independence. Aim of ancients: share social power among the citizens of a single country (liberty) Aim of moderns: be secure in their private benefits (liberty guarantees accorded by institutions to these benefits) Abbe de Mably (rep of system following maxims of ancient liberty) citizens should be entirely held down so that the nation can be sovereign; individual should be enslaved so that the people can be free Constant: Because we live in modern times, I want a liberty suited to modern times. True modern liberty is individual liberty. Their governments were stronger than individuals, whereas in our time individuals are stronger than the political power. Therefore, far from renouncing either of the two sorts of freedom [...] necessary to combine [...] raise largest number of citizens to highest moral position. www.notesolution.comJouissance enjoyment; benefits Moeurs customs, habits, way of life, morality Manifesto of the Communist Party (Sept. 27 ) Bourgeoisie class of modern capitalists Proletariat class of modern wage labourers o Modern bourgeois society established new classes, conditions of oppression & forms of struggle in place of old ones o Our epoch [of bourgeoisie] has simplified class antagonisms: Bourgeoisie & Proletariat o Correlation between development of bourgeoisie & corresponding political advance [of that class]; put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations o Universal interdependence of nations (material & intellectual production) creations = common property o Compels all nations to adopt bourgeois mode of production introduce civilization into their midst (become bourgeois themselves) = creates a world after its own image o Agglomerate population, centralized means of production, concentrated property in a few hands political centralization o Epidemic of over-production repetitive commercial crises o Solutions for crises: (1) enforced destruction; (2) conquest of new markets & exploitation of old short term solution, augments long-term problem o Labourers = commodities, subject to same conditions o Modern Industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. o Every class struggle is a political struggle o Revolutionary class holds the future in its hands the Proletariat o Fall of bourgeoisie & victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable www.notesolution.com
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