Midterm Review - Key Terms

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

December 13 2011POL101Y1 Midterm Exam Review Key TermsAffirmative Action an action or policy favouring those who tend to suffer from discrimination enforces demographic quotas meant to prevent racist decisionmaking Problems of Democracy Oct 24Ancient Democracy a participatory direct form of democracy based on freedom of the collective over freedom of the individual Constant and the Rise of Liberalism Sept 19Balance of power a system of alliances in which weaker states band together against stronger states creating an equilibrium that generally prevents continental war Cold War Realism Nov 28Bipolarity as opposed to multipolarity unipolarity etc a distribution of power in which two states have the majority of the power and influence in the international system Cold War Realism Nov 28Bourgeoisie according to Karl Marx the ruling class that owns the means of production and exploits those who are beneath them The Rise of the West and Marxism Sept 26Civic Citizenship Clash of Civilizations a book by Samuel P Huntington that reacts to Fukuyamas end of history theory argues that Fukuyama presents an Eurocentric narrow reading of world history that liberal peace and prosperity are illusory and that what matters in the postCold War era are civilizational fault lines Introduction Sept 12 o Civilization according to Huntington the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species defined by both common objective elements such as language history religions customs and institutions and by the subjective selfidentification of peopleClassClass Struggle according to Marx the material struggle between the two major classes of society the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat the inevitable polarization of the two classes the disappearance of the middle class petite bourgeoisie and the eventual uprising of the Proletariat to create a Communist society abolishing private property as well as the ruling class The Rise of the West and Marxism Sept 26Collective Action Problema situation in which multiple individuals would all benefit from a certain action which however has an associated cost making it implausible that any one individually can or will undertake and solve it alone Wikipedia when individuals fail to take part in collective action due to unclear benefits the ability to freeride or associated costs eg voting Problems of Democracy Dec 24
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