Notes for Jan 10 reading

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

January 10, 2011 [Rwanda in Retrospect by Kuperman] Foreign Affairs US is searching for a comprehensive policy to address the deadly criminal acts such as the mass killings in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda o US ground troops shouldnt be used in humanitarian interventions during ongoing civil wars o An exception should be made for cases such as genocide. Support for intervention to stop genocide is voiced out. US troops couldve saved the victims of genocide in Rwanda. But they wouldve be able to save half the lives the genocide killings even if a large force is deployed upon reports of genocide. Prelude To Genocide Rwandan politics were dominated by Tutsi before 917% of the popn, the rest were Hutus and less than 1% were aboriginal Twa) Hutu overtook the country in a violent struggle that forced the Tutsi popn to move to neighbouring states. HUTU groups: a) PARMEHETU assumed power upon independence Tutsi refugees invaded Rwanda many times trying to return to power. So, the HUTUs killed the domestic Tutsis. NW Hutu came into power and dominated Rwandas pol, eco and military life. Large-scale violence against domestic Tutsi disappeared for 15 yrs (invasions by refugees stopped) RPA (Rwandan Patriotic Army) invaded northern Rwanda and RPF (Front) invaded north Rwanda. RPA and RPF forced the Hutu officer (Habyarimana) to agree to share power with them in Arusha Rwandan leader tried to modify the agreement with UN peacekeepers. Habyarimana bribed the opposition and appeals to solidarity against the Tutsi (succeeded in splitting the radical factions from the main opposition parties) Habyarimana and the extremists: trained militias, broadcasted anti- Tutsi hate radio, plotting to kill moderate Hutu leaders, Tutsi civilians. His plane was shot down when he was trying to agree to the intl pressure to implement the accords. So, the genocide plan was carried on. Govt radio station and the extremists urged the Hutu to revenge the death of the president by attacking the Tutsi. (Rape, rob, killing, arson) Lots of tutsi took refuge in central gathering places (churches, school, hospitals) o They regrouped in hundreds to tens of thousands in these sites
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