POL 101 2nd Term Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL 101 2 Term Notes Nationalism and Conflict Nationalism: ideology of nations (nations want their own state) o Nationalism invents nations* o Nation- group of people who believe they share a common fate, history, culture, and language o Nationalism: state and nation should be congruentleaders should share common culture with the people (nation) o Feeling of a large group who we share culture with and that state should share as well, a connection to something Never existed in history til recently--- no congruence between nation and state til 100 years ago Congruence of cultural group and state- only under modern conditions Need for congruence: o Nationalism and modernization High culture and low culture: European monarchs and populations just spoke whatever language, all different Industrialization: need for universalization of high culture Communicating with people you dont know; need for a common language/ culture o Need to coordinate/ communicatenon-context bound communication universally understood language o Organization to create/ impose standards: states (system of education, language, etc) Why we speak English: English beat Natives Nations are constructed projects of elites o Products of aggregated individual beliefs o Create identityeven Ontario and other provinces keep a true Canadian identity School: teach history o If your culture is not adopted as high (universal) culture, you face a systematic disadvantage Industrial society: states are service organizations for providing common cultures (education) Ukraine- saw they were going to be disadvantaged by Russians/ Poles o Historians and linguists created Ukranian grammar book: the proper way; and made great stories (wrote history- told a national narrative) All nations tell stories- stories of their history with elements of the truth Hungarians: there since 900... Austrian-Hungarian empire in 19 century was the beginning of their nationalism, speaking Hungarian, not German Slovaks: western speaking peasants, created history (1993 independence) o Nationalism creates nations Social creations form nations www.notesolution.com Washington: architecture designed to awe/ intimidate Sequencing: o State first, nation second: France and Britain- nation building o Nation first, state second: Germany and Italy- unification in 1890s Strong democracies vs. Radical dictatorship Countries after WW1 are multinational Significant ethnic minorities o Issues of accommodation, population exchange, extermination Ethnic vs Civic nationalism: o Basis of belonging: cultural or political o Ethnic- share culture, born into culture o Civic- political allegiance You can become American [political allegiance] Membership based on allegiance is somewhat thin identity Canada: liberalism vs. communitarians o Individual vs. group rights o Ex. Official holidays- multiculturalism: is it real? o State fund and preserves ethnic groups Multiculturalism- positive: great cooperation; costs: contact hypothesis against solidarity Welfare state: would not want to support other nationalities USA/ Canada: weak welfare states Rest of World: must have nation-state o West imposed pattern of developing world without allowing development world to go through necessary processes United States should be United Nations. UN should be US. Primordialism: nations are old; transcend time Built upon ethnic groups (nations existed before nationalism) Modernism: o Industrial Revolution- need for communication Universalization of high culture- need for common language Rulers imposed their culture on the people Elite impose their view of nation on everyone else People cannot resist the power of the strong- nation building Gellners analysis: elite project Anderson: imagined communities Print capitalism- books were printed in Latin; printers began to print in the vernacular (local) languages; created discrete units of people who could read Civic nationalism- political... USA (thin) Ethnic nationalism- cultural... Germany (thick) Passed down through blood and ancestry Rwanda: 1962 www.notesolution.com o Belgians show upethnic cards: Hutu lesser tribes vs. Tutsi descended from North- preferred by Belgians o 1990: Tutsi from Uganda invaded Rwanda and began Civil War o 1993: treaty; fighting back and forth o Apr 6, 1994: Rwanda and Burundi: presidents killedbegins genocide Genocide Genocide (1): intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group o Occurs- killing, harming, physical destruction (conditions of life), prevent births, transfer children to different groups Acts against political groups are excluded from the definition Crimes Against Humanity (2): o Murder, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, rape, committed against any civilian population War Crimes (3): violations of laws and customs of war o Nazis- explicitly trying to exterminate Jews Unprecedented systematic, deliberate killings of one group Nuremberg trials: basis of genocide definition Created by those who won war and try the Nazis for what they did to civilians, not about war Tribunal created in an ad-hoc way: was the killing deliberate? Systematic? Intent to kill? Crimes against humanity can occur without war Objections to convention on genocide: o Excludes targeted political/ social groups o Proving intention beyond reasonable doubt is difficult o Measuring (scale)how many deaths equal genocide? Precedents o Nazis tried at Nuremberg o Change in international law Govts are accountable for what they do to their own citizens States are fundamental unites of international system Sovereignty: control over country Nuremberg- state sovereignty does not trump everything; have responsibility to their own citizens and other states Soldiers are bound to refuse to participate in genocide o Memoralize, collective/objective history, deterrent o Hitlers orders do not make it okay for German leaders to participate in genocide Responsibilities of Individual States: o Even after theyve been defeated/ replaced, perpetrators of past crimes may still have power o Military responsible for genocide/ crimes may still control weapons/ force o Past perpetrators may have loyalty of significant parts of population How new democracies deal with past perpetrator powers (ex. Latin America): www.notesolution.com o Truth commission- investigate pattern for gross human rights violations Issue public report: reveal data and recommendations for justice and reconciliation Aim to restore relationship between perpetrator and victims Justice and reconciliation contradict each other Trade-off justice to promote democratic institutions to fragile to punish perpetrator: justicesocial peace o Argentina: 30,000 disappeared- The Dirty War o 1982: Falklands War- UK wins, generals remain in control of military, weak govt takes power New govt, same militarytruth/ reconciliation commission Report Never Again Military: govt retreats from prosecution and amnesty- no justice Emphasis on reconciliation, no punishment Lengthy time of prosecution allowed military to regroup/ organize o Allow democracy to survive vs. Face challenge and prosecute (amnesty for everyone except senior officers) o Lesson of Argentina- justice and political stability are best reconciled through a program of prosecutions Rwanda: origins of genocide are related to new govtpeace keeping force was not good enough o Most intense episode of genocide killing ever 3-4 weeks- 800,00 Tuzis killed while the world watched [evidence was overwhelming but UN did nothing] Obligation to take action? UN nations wont call it genocide because they didnt do anything
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