Aristotle Notes - Complete

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Political Science
Janice Stein

ARISTOTLES POLITICS 291110 12:30 PM formed western thought of politics. Aristotle is considered a great influence in the western political world, more than plato. The Politics was recovered in the high middle ages. Unlike the republic a city which can only exist in thought or speech, the politics deals with a real city. the politics is not a dialogue. The author throughout speaks in his own voice. The entire politics, is in aristotles own voice. Therefore it appears more straightforward and more easier to read. Aristotles style is very compressed, its not always clear what a sentence means, you have to think hard just to follow the argument. His own voice contains many arguments, therefore not so diff. from plato. The politics had lectures delivered at the lyceum platos school. He is the most outstanding student of plato. 6317. Its also the case his work reflect s disagreements with plato. So far as politics is concerned their disagreements are more significant than otherwise. Aristotle was a philosophic friend of platos;. many friendships fall prey to disagreements but not in case of philosophers. The fact that they disagree is no obstacle to their friendships, Because they are engaged in a common activity to gain more knowledge. Their shared awareness of how much they have yet to learn is what connects them in friendship. The politics is less about answering questions. Obama, optimist for hopefulness. They are conservative in their recognition of obstacles. Our focus will be democracy. W hat politics means in greek? those things having to do with the polis. There is no english word to translate polis. We could translate it as community, or city but independence is indeed a necessary aspect of the polis. Toronto is not a polis. Aristotle defines it as self sufficient, more than independence. Aristotle begins by saying; The polis is an association, which like every association aims at some good. What defines the community is the good at which it aims. What distinguishes the polis from other associations? It aims at the whole human good. Its the polis that includes all the other associations, all others are subordinate to it, inside and part f a city, regulated by the city. ch1. The polis aims higher and requires more of those who rule it. Ch2. The polis is natural. It is the culmination of the process of natural growth, human beings grow into the polis. by nature we a re members of communities, beginning from the family and ascend up to the city. the first of human association is that of husband and wife and the other is man and slave. The community of master and slave is different from that of man and wife. The female is distinguished from the slave. Aristotle say of those www.notesolution.comwho treat women as slaves, that their men were unfit to rule, therefore they were themselves slaves. The 2 associations together established according to nature, from these ]exist the village. Self sufficiency for the sake of mere life is important, it has to be large enough to maintain its independence. It must be self sufficient with regard to the good life. P.36 the notion of the player, (teleological meaning to the understanding of telos the end of a goal.) one who approaches perfection. This is popular teleological thinking. A good example of a thing in a good condition. Its this way of thinking that justifies the city in natural. Realizing our potential in the full sense. It fulfills human nature. these other associations are natural and that it is their necessary culmination. It is necessary for the good life for humans to realize their full potential. Why is man the most political animal? Speech. From the Greek word. The important thing to grasp is in addition to meaning, the sense of capacity of speech. it also means reason, because of our capacity of understanding. Animals have voice but no speech. Those sounds express pain and pleasure. Discussion is the crucial sign of reason. a man learns only what is good for him when he understands through discussion, reason and conversation. Its the ability of human to pose these questions that other animals are not capable of. This is unique to humans. We come to know of ourselves through these discussionsdialect. Is then the city a discussion group? politics is partly about power. P37 sentence 12: partnership in the sense of perception. To be a full and loyal member of a community is to subscribe to the goods and norms of the community that guides it. A city has to discuss and decide authoritatively. This ambiguity suggests that disagreement will prove more typical of it than agreement, everyone in the city will demand and agree with justice. There will be a general agreement that justice is necessary. There is a certain disagreement on what justice is. There fore a certain view of justice prevails in the city. Aristotle is aware of the citys disagreement. the priority of the city to the citizen:- in what sense is the city prior to the citizen. Each of us has a role to fulfill in the city, a hand severed from the body is not a hand in the full sense. It cannot fulfill its role apart from the body. Likewise an individual severed from the city is less than a citizen. We are as humans naturally a member of a community. The city is natural and there is something artificial about the human being separated form the city. study question:- what is Aristotles argument..positive or negative? For hobbes and locke, the state of nature is bad so Aristotles argument is positive. But is his argument his own? Only a city develops law and justice. The man who founds the city
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