Exam Notes Winter 2013.pdf

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Political Science
Janice Stein

Pol200to MARCH 29 2012 th St Agustinlived in 5C in North Africa Mamonidieslived in Islamic spainIben Rouchwiring in SpainArabic They bring multiculturalism Why are we still reading these old bookour political institutions are tied to these traditions o Its like a family tree born in AthensIn all these texts its possible to read from a gender perspective Central notion of rationalism and reasonLecture Outline 1 Intellectual Context Why do we start with the Greeks a Ionian revolutionCulture etchas moved from east to west They wrote in Greekthey were Greek but it was east of Greece they expect the world to be orderly Ionia into Greecenow how should we live our livesThey asked questions in a particular waynot clearly o They were interested in physicist questionsthe way the world worked its physical components o Convinced humans can understand that order cosmoso You need to know about history storieso But it creates a world that is riddled with arbitrariness o They tried to explain the world in rational terms o But they didnt reject divinityjust rejected the pagan approacho Humans can understand the world and THUS control their own destinymake it less arbitrary They were philosophers They moved to ethics and politic questions Throughout Plato its an understanding of the pagan systemSocrates was accused of investigating things in heaven and earth aka being an Ionian because the way they approached the world challenged the pagan waysRational account of the universe cosmosWhat is philosophy What is the Western philosophical tradition b SocratesPlatoRational account of the good life polisFusion of ethics and politicsIts tied to using reasonrationality and applying human reason to the problem of the world Being a good person was connected to living in a good societyethics and poiltics Historical Context a Periclean AgeSuccess of democracy Democratic reform in Athens began by direct democracycitizens had to do something all citizens were expected to participate 508First challenge the democratic regime had to face was Persia Persia marched into Greecethey cave But Athens decided to resist the Persian invasion Marathon490 and beat Darius and then Salanes 480 beat Zurkses It elevates Athenseveryones looking at them to be leader of the Greek world o Athens is greedy so the alliances become lopsided o Athens becomes centres of cultureAthens was major power for 100 yrs the demo reforms come in and by 404 Athens is defeated b Peloponnesian WarFailure of democracycorrupt politicians mobs bad decisions zAthens loses the war because it fucked its allies with lopsided relationshipsThe period of 100 yrs created art literature etc which lasted till todayThey fall to SpartaHe grew up in the worst time plagues terrible politiciansSocratesA democratic regime arrests Socrates tries and executes him PreliminariesSocrates and the SophistsSocrates never wrote anythingHes primarily a character in Platos dialogue He was a teacherhe had students Why was he a Sophisto If you were a citizen with money when you got to college you went there for democratic politicsyou had to persuade peopleit was learning how to persuade and argue all sorts of topics o Sophiststraveling professors who would teach persuasion and argument to their students o Sophist art of clever argumentclevermaking weak seem strong o In Socrates trial he was accused of making weak arguments seem strong o He wasnt a Sophisto 1 he never took any money fees o 2didnt teach ppl the skills to succeed in politicshe taught ppl to seek truth no matter what and never back downchallenge authority o 3he claimed he was never teaching anythingjust wanted to know what you know o Central dilemma of the Republicif you like the truth you will not like politicsSocrates and Plato relationshipWhen you read the book is it Plato or Socrates speaking o You can look at it as Socrates not being a personSocratic vs Platonic viewSocrates is not the same philosopher as Plato o Socrates spent his life trying to better people challenge things etcmore reflective think more rid rationalitiespracticalwanted to make people better people why did you say that etcmoralisto Platoest a school wrote dialogues with full metaphysicsphilosophero Socratic irony book 1 has lots of it o When Socrates says I dont know anythingyou tell meit turns out the person who he claims to have knowledge doesnt have knowledge o He sets u on a path which will get you to know something if you think you know nothing o Socratic elenchus common in book 1 o A form of argumentation thats irritating o Someone starts with a premise but they end up coming to a conclusion thats opposite to what they initially thought o Logical type of argument that tries to show the person who puts forward the premise is confused and lack of knowledge is exposedPlatonic dialogue o Book is constructed by Platoo Hes communicating his philosophical ideas through a structure o Socrates is a pious person o Every sentence has a point What is The Republic aboutEducationLaws etc shape peoplePeople are different depending on the society they live inJusticeOffers a view of an ideal city Achieving a certain balance within the just world worldPhilosophyA life dedicated to truthHow to pursue the truth and the obstacles getting to the truthmain obstacle is politics itself Book1The scene is setViews of JusticeCephalus an older man on his way out o Justice is honesty in word and deedo Conclude Socrates isnt rude to him hes respectful of himMeans the view that hes putting forward isnt threatening Athens Important for Plato and Socrates to distance themselves from certain conservatisms distance themselvesPolemarchusCephaluss son wants career in Politics o Justice is helping friends and harming enemies
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