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Political Science
Robert Brym

POL201Y – Fall Term Test Notes Three ways of Organizing Production 1. Traditional - Historical/ancestral following (same way century after century) - Resistant to innovation - Trade gills - Sons go into same trades as fathers 2. Command - Central planning - Soviet Union 5 Year Plans o Determined scope of distribution and production by 5 year cycles - Bureaucratic decision on production and distribution 3. Market - Organizing social and political life - Feudal System what needed to undermined in order to create market system o Feudal System – labour was not a commodity, could not sell their labour instead received housing, food, and protection for labour o People didn’t sell their land and didn’t accumulate more than they could use (property was not a commodity) o Nothing could be turned into capital o No point in over production (produced enough to sustain selves, no need for surplus because no market for it o Money not spent on improving efficiency - Hierarchy, static Agricultural Revolution - Land turned into commodity that can make capital off of - Enclosure Act o Privatization of common land (transferred open fields to private property) o Allowed lords to take land back and put it to private use (what was once common now belonged to the lords) o Government stepped in to pass enclosure act (make ownership of private property legal)  Government intervention essential to formation of market, undermines story about market being generated spontaneously as result of people’s interest to barter and trade  Adam Smith – market the natural way organizing production o Main incentive for enclosure was increased productivity of the land  More incentive to own land, more valuable because of increased land productivity o Improved farming techniques o Learn crop rotation  Can now use land year round and years after  Increase understanding of nutrients crops take from land  Use land productively - Two Dramatic Changes 1. Enclosure forces people off the land, once privatized serfs didn’t have access to land anymore, some turned into labour force on the farm, moveable labour force a. Start to more to large industrial centers and factories (no people to work in factories because people were tied to land – enclosure people no longer tied to land, forced to sell land and work in farms, turn labour into commodity) 2. Increase Food Production a. Majority of people didn’t have to be engaged in producing food will eat b. Food surplus used to feed factory workers, surplus sold to those outside production of food Industrial Revolution - Profit motive, production mechanized - Used capital and reinvested into production - People started to buy most of the goods they consumed - Subsistence production no longer (now consuming things they didn’t produce) - Factories o Textile o Before was long and labour intensive production o Standardized production o Overall quality improved but increase efficiency lead to quantity over quality o Employed women and children o Working conditions were bad and paid low wages (lower than men) o Factories ran of coal (industrial revolution happened first in Britain mainly because Britain was rich in coal) - Steam Engine o Pumped out water out of coal mined (before water removed by women and children with bucket and hand) > lead to increase in production (spend less time removing water from mines) o Steam engines used in coal mining, textile industry, and rail road o One of the most important inventions of IR o Improvements in iron industry (before used coal and wood that would produce weak iron) o With smelting, using the steam engine, produced better iron that could be used in rail roads and trains (used for transportation) - Transportation (canals and rail roads) o Transport raw materials to center of production o Transport food to center of production o Transport finished goods to markets - Inventions/Patents o Crucial roles of government in this process (British government invented patent system) o Own your patent can make money off your invention o Inventor could be a career o Inventions generated one another - Labour o Now a commodity (sell labour to highest bidder) o Implies free labour (but conditions horrific, no safety, families could not sustain themselves unless everyone including children would work) o Population explosion that produced a huge labour force  Decline in death rate  Increase birth rate  Elimination of plague  Increase food consumption (variety) - Marx and Ingle o In response to industrial revolution o Debate whether industrial revolution makes life better or worse o Conditions were worse off in IR than when on farm o IR worst at psychological level because reduced human being to just a worker - Formation of Unions/Social Reform o Working conditions etc. generated unions (can affect change) o Strike action (main method to get change) o Collective bargaining o Most laws favoured factory owners  The Combination Act – forbade workers to form unions and favoured employers over employees - Chartist Movement o Higher wages o Improved working conditions o Shorter work days Modernization - Characterized core countries - Rapid economic growth is produced by urbanization, political participation, mobility, and literacy - Passing of traditional (underdeveloped and irrational) society - Transition to participant society - Balgat – Lerner o Small village in Turkey (used to illustrate features of traditions) :  Isolation – great distance from city  No market participation  Absence of information – chief owns only radio, receiving only news source  Chief symbolize inherited hierarchies of power  No physical and social mobility  Social status determined by owned status  Lack ability to project imaginative alternatives (lack empathy)  Lack respect of other’s opinions o The grocer symbolize the future  He is mobile (travel to the capital/city)  Part of the market (buying and selling items)  Demonstrate empathy  Receives information from people in the city o Turkish peasants engaged in political participation because :  Population explosion  Urbanization (capital redefined to now include Balgat)  Mobility (transportation – rail roads)  Electricity and running water - Lerner’s Theory of Modernization o Modern state of mind/personality  Rational/positive spirit, goal oriented, empathetic, mobile, opinionated  Modernization = transition to participant society  Index / agent of change (correlation with development)  Urbanization, literacy, medical participant/mass media, political participation  Countries with higher development were much more likely to become democratic Colonialism – Nigeria - Persistent disparities in wealth, unequal terms of trade - Different levels of economic development - Correlation between poorest countries and past colonies - Colonial powers drew boarders and created separated groups between people who were essentially the same (caused clash in societies) - Boundaries of African states based on colonial boundaries and not boundaries between people - Different states have different preconditions therefore colonialization has different effects and impacts in different countries/societies - Starting Point – Political System o Kingdoms (Nigeria) and very little political power (authority was diffused between kings and chiefs) (many hierarchies) o Indirect rule of colonial powers through chiefs (chiefs acted as agents of colonial powers) o Kingdoms have little extractive capacity (limited resources to do so) o Fairly easy for colonial powers to penetrate kingdom and take over (can extract resources easily) o British created local economies that were geared towards extraction and exportation of raw materials (cotton) (rather than build up sustainable economies) o Nigeria no domestic manufacturing base, no interest in technological advancement for agriculture o British taking raw materials from Nigeria, sending materials back home to be manufactured into cloth (adding value to the materials) o Nigeria buys the made materials and becomes the market of what was their own raw materials o High prices and unequal terms of trade - Slave Trade o Want young men and women o Take most productive segment of population of Nigeria, thus depopulating large of Africa o Poverty today due to lack of people being able/lacking capabilities to work in the markets in Africa Imperialism and Dependency - Imperialism o Special stage of capitalism called monopoly capitalism (distortion of capitalism) o Colonialism not just to extract resources of global south, but to control the resource extraction (monopolize extraction) o Colonies were costly to maintain (without colonial powers) o Reason to control the resource extraction is (Lenin) : extending markets depends on selling cheap products with depends on having a cheap source of raw materials o Lenin believes that since capitalism is on the decline, to protect themselves they must monopolize extraction - Dependency Theory o Argument that the development of the core countries produces and depends upon the underdevelopment of the periphery countries o Rich remains so by buying cheap resources from periphery and selling expensive manufactured goods back to periphery  Trade Imbalance – poor countries dependent on rich (structural relation between core and periphery) o Short term gain for periphery (but cannot afford to sustain) o Look to world system that produces variations that lead to different levels of development (structural)  Modernization looks to individuals and values that lead to variations for development (behavioral) o Dependency theorists states that all human beings are rational actors but are inserted into different societies with different views on reality (varying views on modernity) o People in underdeveloped countries are rational within a different incentive system o Dependency theorists view that the time you enter the world system determines who you are  Dependency – better to enter early and be an extractor than later and be an extractee  Those stuck in periphery will not move up (challenged by Taiwan and Singapore)  Reason why some countries are poor/rich is dependent on way have been inserted into the world  Modernity – can develop out of underdevelopment through specific steps/process - Unequal Terms of trade/Trade Imbalance o Declining terms of trade (first noted by Prebisch and Singer) o Primary good are inelastic (insensitive to price or income) and secondary goods are elastic  There is a limit to amount of food a family can use, but there is not a limit to number of manufactured goods person wants/needs o Elastic when price or demand is responsive o Demand for secondary goods is infinite (as you make more money your demand for secondary goods will go up) o Prebisch and Singer Hypothesis  As wealth increase demand for primary goods remains relatively stable but secondary goods increase, in turn cost of primary goods will go up o Main exports  Periphery – primary goods  Core – secondary goods o Trade imbalance between north and south is trade imbalance between primary goods and manufactured goods o Short term price fluctuations problem for poorer countries (natural disasters, oversupply, shortage – extreme fluctuation in price increase or decrease but not much of cushion to withstand a bad year) o Long term commodity price harder to overcome - Long Term Trends (changes in …) o Technology  Reduce cost (can produce more) (transportation)  Synthetic alternative to the commodities produce o Competition among producers  Poor countries who is the only source, in competition to capture longer share of the market (trying to capture larger long term market share) o Consumer Preferences  Changing consumer demand in developed countries  Some agricultural products sensitivity to price fluctuations and in turn fluctuations in demand o Market structure, policies and institutions  Subsidies by the developed countries of agriculture producing cheap efficient and high quality foods Dependency vs. Modernization - Level of Analysis o Modernity – individual country/society (whether it fails or not depends on issues within country) (what happens inside country decides whether country develops and adopts democracy) o Dependency – unit of analysis is world system, how world works is single system, look at the interactions between countries - Structural Explanation o Difference in wealth is a structural problem between the trade relations between periphery and core countries o Modernity – change happens when there is changes in values and adaptation to newer ways (industrial revolution) o Dependenc
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