Reading Summaries

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL201Y1
Professor
C Jung
Semester
Fall

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POL201 Reading Summary Week One- POL201 – The making of an economic society reading notes ­ America wealthiest, in 1970 the GNP crossed trillion dollar mark - $5000/person ­ However does not equal to quality of life, America still 22 on list of life expectancy ­ Richer the nation more likely to have social neglect, and poverty is relative (differs in rural/urban areas) ­ Poverty – aspect of social neglect by any nation affluent enough to neglect it ­ US ‘arsenal of democracy’  discount supermarket ­ US Dept of defense – largest planned economy outside Soviet Union. ­ However if defense spending is cut = severe economic depression ­ Military not only supports core industry but also penetrates the core and strong political arm ­ Ghetto poverty is trapping cycle w/less opportunities; bigger problem is unemployment outside ghetto, relations of rich America to underdeveloped world. ­ “Economics” – study of a process we find in all human societies ­ Economic problem – process of providing the material for the well being of society ­ The richer the nation the harder to survive alone hence they are dependant… that’s why we survive in rich nations (we get things we cannot do alone = division of labor) ­ We are rich not as individuals but as members of a rich society ­ Man is the economic problem not nature! ­ Economics is not just the desire but the capacity to serve as well. Societies must perform the following: 1. Organize a system to produce enough goods/services for its own survival 2. Must also arrange distribution of fruits of production so that more can take place Production and Distribution problems: ­ Basic problem of production: devise social institutions that will mobilize human th energy for productive purposes …1/4 of US workforce unemployed in 1933 because a social mechanism that puts these people to work is lacking. Social organization impacts mobilization Before any other society problem: mechanism for survival, mechanism for accomplishing the complicated tasks of production and distribution necessary for its own continuity. 3 system types: economies run by: 1. Tradition – Hierarchy chain, they deal with problems like they did in the past, has been a stabilizing force in the great repetitive cycle of society, continued reliance on tradition to solve production problems however the solution to the problem of production/distribution is a static one, solves problems at the expense of economic progress 2. Command – offers solutions to the twin problems of production/distribution, in times of crisis (war/famine) It may be the only way in which society can organize its man power, doesn’t slow down economic change, exercise of authority is the most powerful instrument in society for enforcing social change, no modern society is devoid of command 3. Market – has minimal recourse to either tradition or command, markets of antiquity were not the means by which societies solved their basic economic problem First impression of antique markets/economies: agriculture, all ancient societies were rural economies…everyone lives off their soil…man was oppressed, tax ridden, dominated by economic rule of tradition//main stimulus for change was command or obedience…labor, patience and endurance were his contributions. Difference between ancient city economies and contemporary market society: ­ Restricted character scope of market functions of city ­ Resilience on slave labor In any society, wealth implies that a surplus has been wrung from nature, that a social organization has not alone solved its economic production problem. Social form taken by the accumulation of wealth reveals a great deal about any society Wealth did not go to people who played a strictly economic role. It was generally a reward for political, military, religious power and status, and not for economic society. Societies reward the activities they view highly valuable… In pre-market societies, wealth tended to follow power not until the market society did power follow wealth. Economics before antiquity (Aristotle) : use and gain// for trade//out of household management. This is before economic order and economic perplexity. Economics in middle ages: commencement of feudalism = retrenchment, depopulation, deprivation…Halted development and economic progression…Breakdown of long scale political organizations. Self – Reliance  economic hallmark of the middle ages…new basic unit of economic organization…manorial estate: peace of land with feudal lord. In middle ages, despite extreme self-sufficiency lots resembled economic organization of antiquity.  Form of economic societies organized by tradition, no centralized govt therefore slow pace of economic change.  Form of society, which was characterized by striking absence of money transactions//still a huge static Expanding economy + growing scale of production as foreign to the lord as it was to the serf. How did society without market mechanism turn into a true market economy? 1) New attitude toward economic activity, must be free to seek gain, high profit = high social mobility as well as aggressive competition man to man 2) Monetization of economic life will proceed to its ultimate conclusion: market economy involves exchange, buying, selling, every task must have a monetary reward (unlike slave, serf labour) 3) Free play market “demand” will take over regulation of economic tasks of society before tradition or command solved the economic problem…in market society, another means of control must rise to take the place//monetization must become great propulsive mechanism of society (supply/demand) Rise of merchant + town were two great factors in the slow evolution of a market society out of medieval economic life, last factor was crusades. They bought together two different worlds (developed Europe + rural Europe)  immense role in speeding economic transition in Europe ­ England had internally unified market (unlike other European nations hence one of the first to emerge to power) ­ Economic + political processes – centralized govt  unification of law and money , encouraged exploration – impeccable effect ­ Change in religious climate (church grew, largest collector and distributor of money in Europe) and Calvinism…which urged a life of diligence (contrast to catholic’s who saw wealth seeking as vanity) ­ Change also due to gradual monetization of feudal obligations (rural nobility lost to economic power) + manorial system Modern economies describe the manner in which a certain kind of society, with a specific history of accumulation and institutional evolution solves its economic problems. New social control = pattern of social behavior of normal everyday action that was imposed on society Week One- Same Summary THE MAKING OF ECONOMIC SOCIETY HEILBRONER -GNP Gross National Product 1970: $5000 for every man, woman, and child in America -overall riches co-exist with social neglect nd th -US – Spends highest proportion of GNP on health services; 22 in male life expectancy, 10 in female -Urban decay, relative well-being, rural slums, the Ghetto -Poverty = relative concept -U.S. - Department of Labor – poverty threshold; by definition, 10% of Americans were poor in 1968 -Poverty has been shrinking as a whole, but it does not shrink in critical areas: poverty is racialized -Poverty = social neglect -To eliminate poverty: give somewhere between 1 and 1.5 % of GNP to bring families up the poverty threshold -8-9% of trillion dollar output of American economy = military goods -military assistance characterized by mismanagement, arsenal of democracy -Department of Defense (DOD)  largest planned economy outside the Soviet Union -property = 202$ billion (8% of assets of entire American economy) -39 million acres of land -official budget of 75$ billion -richer than any small nation in the world -six tones of TNT for every person in the world atleast 2.3 million civilians employed by DOD  to counteract the cutback in military output only to be achieved through peacetime spending -military establishment = largest customer in the economy powerful political arm; lobbyists, public relations - neglect + poverty + militarism + pollution = hi america ecological disturbance neglect = poverty = vast military claim -ghetto: racial discrimination, poverty, unemployment -economics: the process of providing the material well-being for society; problem of survival; scarcity how man earns his daily bread 37 economics of society: the mode by which society organizes itself to meet basic tasks of economic survival problem of survival = helplessness of economic individuals 38 problem of economics = problem of social justice -independence vs dependence small, contained peasant communities = independent material ease of life and dependence on others = Western World -the richer the nation, the more dependent an individual is upon others we survive in rich nations because the tasks we cannot/will not do for ourselves are done by others; creating a division of labour -coal = basic commodity -man=greatest source of most economic problems the scarcity of nature  increasing the yield of nature (=industrial development) -yield of nature risen = nature’s yield is risen -social status+possession of material goods=social status -social application of human energy and skill to meet the wants ad needs of increasing the yield of nature - physical environment - appetite of the human being - capability of commodity fundamental problem of production and distribution ­ organize society to ensure the production of enough goods ­ arrange distribution of what it has produced so that more production may take place Production and Distribution Problems - production problem: applying skills to recourses at hand, avoiding waste, utilizing social effort - devise social institutions to mobilize enough human energy for productive purposes unemployment: lacking social mechanisms to put the unemployed to work - social organization success/failure = volume of human effort - put to work in right places, large quantity of social effort ensured, in an industrial society, becomes more difficult to allocate effort production of luxuries, inability to be productive, allocate failures, a viable society must produce the right goods in primitive society urban workers unable to deliver fruits of their labour, because they have not been given enough of society’s outputs to run human capacity to full potential -distribution may fail because it does not reward people according to perform the necessary tasks -inadequate solution to distribution problem = social and political unrest, or revolution - must ensure capacity and willingness to provide a steady material replenishment; economic inquiry  human institutions, to contain and control The Three Solutions to the Economic Problem ­ mechanism for survival: mechanism for solving production/distribution problems tradition: production problem: problem of assuring that the needful tasks will be done -historical social organization of production/distribution according to historical trial and error -hereditary chain, assuring that needed tasks will be done generation to generation; ex Egypt principle of religion -birth determining ones role in life -helped preserve the orderliness of the production of goods in society -very repetitive, cyclic -provides stableness in society distribution problem: tradition dictates the social product -Ex, the Bushman in the Kalahara Desert in South Africa -tradition does not agree with our moral views -women to be allocated the least amount of social product - common in primitive agrarian/nonindustrial societies -perseverance of traditional order must be questioned -plays little role in society today -ex, selecting an employment opportunity can be dictated by traditional traditional = delay of rapid social/economic progress; solutions = static 43 manorial estates, feudal era command: ancient lineage of imposed authority -orders of economic commander-in-chief -imposed on traditional social base -authoritarian economic organization; despotism -times of crisis, can effectively organize manpower to provide release -command does not slow down economic change, unlike tradition =most powerful for economic change; sometimes economic authority intervenes in normal flow of economic life -can alter the income among social classes can be a form of democratic (exercised within a democratic political process) or totalitarian (not in framework of democratic political process) -mechanism can be the same: interfere with existing order of production market: = the way people behave 39 everyone strives for gain -allows society to ensure it’s own successful production, no reliance on tradition or command -no one assigned to task, allowed to decide for himself -all tasks will be filled because it’s in society’s best interest that they are how does the market ensure that all tasks are actually done? Economics: studying how the market ensures this: the study of power and politics How did it come into being? Why do poverty, pollution, and neglect still exist in society? 30 Adam Smith: ”certain propensity in human nature to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another.” Exchange = center of economic life -markets did not exist in antiquity to solve basic economic problems -power follows wealth The Economic Organization of Antiquity To whom does the Surplus accrue? -characteristics of economic organization -agricultural aspect: limited capacity for the farming community ot support the non- farming community -underdeveloped regions today very similar to antiquity -tiller of the soil=peasant: anchored the economies of antiquity, nonmarket aspect of antiquity -contemporary farmers: caught in web of market-like interactions -peasants: provides principally for himself, must hand over a portion of what he makes -economic life = consistent, varied legal and social status on different areas and eras = economic rule of tradition, bound to soil by law and custom ancient agricultural society = not permitting peasant-cultivator to active market activity peasants in city vs country country = static city = active difference of our market activity today to that of antiquity 1.restricted scope and character of the function of the market in the city -cities = trade for luxury goods of upper classes, not raw goods for a goods-consuming society 2.reliance on slave labour -the basis of tradition and command in sustaining the market -free artisans collectivized in collegia ancient society: tend to follow power -the economic organization and its relationship to wealth = surplus surplus= society has not solved economic problems of production, margin of effort above what is required to maintain existence -maintain massive surplus (unequally distributed, no less) exploit labour from the land, support it, and build more prosperity (invest? Sort of) -not yet integrate the production of wealth with the production of goods surplus=wealth=in antiquity, went in favor of political, military, or religious power or status -most wealth did not go to those who played a strict economic role (aka peasants) market society power follows wealth military system v individual merchant arts v trade -little to tax analytic powers of social observers problem of economics = problem of social justice middle ages: religion concerned with riches and poverty = distributive problem of economics riches = personal failing of greedy man social justice = achieved through personal redistribution, alms, and charity -in Bible, examples of reformers seeking to alleviate taxes on the poor ex Leviticus: jubilee ear, return everything borrowed Aristotle: radical social reformer His economicsnot problems of production and distribution, but of oeconomia and chrematistike Oeconomia household management Chrematistike use of natures resources  for profit Economic Society in Middle Ages Describes the Western World beginning with fall of Rome and ending with the Renaissance -think of it in terms of economic variety and change -46 economics = subordinate aspect of life; economic activity + social and religious activity -contrast of diversity in social appearances from century to century, between locality and locality within any giver period 43 medieval economic history: did not engage in commerce therefore had no use for money economic consequences = political dissolution economic structure breakdown of large-scale political organization -administrative framework of law and order replaced by quilt of small-scale political entities political chaos = no national allegiance, no single language or currency = political dissolution = economic consequences characteristic of economies in Middle Ages to have fragmented and disconnected states, in which agents would possess extreme self-reliance =new organization of economic activity manorial estate large tract of land owned by a feudal lord, spiritual or temporal -land was not an economic piece of property, rather a social and political entity -lord of manor = protector, judge, police chief, administrator -serfs of land, not slaves, but were the property of the lord, as was their houses/flocks/crops -43 fixed number of days of labour and fixed quantity of natural products/goods manufactured by himself -homestead = where lord lives -patchwork of fields surrounding manor in half-acre strips; half belonged to lord, half belonged to hierarchy of free/half-free/unfree families who made up the estate -freeman who owned land could no sell to another feudal lord; ownership of land = could not be displaced from it -serf typically “tied” to his plot of land -series of obligations laid at the core of the manorial economic organization -variety of labour-dues and small money payments -lord provided serf with some things he could not obtain by himself, such as physical security, certain element of economic security - extreme self-sufficiency in manorial life/ feudal life economic security organized by tradition, exercise of command relatively weak, lack of central government extremely slow economic change absence of money transactions self-sufficient; manor supplied only itself didn’t forge monetary links with outside world medieval economic history: did not engage in commerce therefore had no use for money medieval economic society: static, essentially moneyless foundation of agricultural production -descendant of Roman towns needed network of markets to serve them towns much different than manors (duh) -towns – “law of merchants” to regulate commercial activity -fair = travelling market in fixed localities for fixed days, brought intense economic activity to the towns -“industrial” production, characteristic of town life -services that the manor could not produce or distribute had to be bought from the towns -guilds: a kind of union; -46 modern aspect of feudal life; take risks out of enterprises in margin of moneyless society -guildmasters: dictated rules for internal conduct of affairs -regulators of production and social conduct -primary concern was to maintain an orderly way of life, and not to make money - controls production, promotes innovation -forestalling: cornered the supply of items -engrossing -profits held at prescribed levels, competition was forbidden -ex Florence 14thC: merchant not permitted to tempt buyer into shop/steal customer from another shop -Medieval economic society: economic activity + religious activity -subordinate aspect of life economics of medieval Catholicism: concerned more with credits and debits of souls of business operators th th -R.H. Tawney (on economic theory in 16 /17 C 1. economic interest subordinate to real business life -real business life = salvation 2.economic conduct = one aspect of personal conduct -rules of morality, material riches are necessary -merchant=hardly pleasing to God,; suspicion of business motives re: Churches concern - what is “just price” ? - a bargain = a sin -economic theologian: economics + ethics -theological suspicion=associate making of money with guilt -ursury lending money at interest =moral sin th th -Lyons and Vienna 13 /14 C = usurer = pariah of society -dislike for loans/profit seeking and interest taking bc of famine -static organization of economic life = no room for gain/profit -didn’t try and improve traditional functioning -profit incompatible with idea of landowning in feudal era -61 theological aversion to the principle of gain during feudal era -idea of expanding economy+growing sales of poduction+increasing productivity = foreign to idea of progress Prerequisites of Change Middle Ages=man organized economic efforts, ruling economic climate ­alter basic form of economic organization + new ties to market transactions pre­market society: markets exist, but do net yet depend on market mechanism to solve economic  problem what changes are required to transform society into a market economy? 1.new attitude toward economic change ­men to be free to seek gain ­new ideas and attitudes to encourage changes that are necessary transform from a society of status  society of contract  2.monetization of economic life ­must involve process of exchange men earn money for their labors ­nearly every take must have a monetary reward for a market to exist ­absence of monetization of tasks = absent of widespread market for producers 3.pressure of free play market demand should regulate economic tasks of society ­distribution of social rewards in Middle Ages due to tradition/command ­men must go to tasks because their s money there, not because they are order there ­market demand must dictate what is needed, not according to manor/guild demands what force will drive a new market orientation to take over production/distribution tasks? 57:rise of itinerant merchant and the crusades The Emergence of a Markey Society 54 ­middle ages key concepts = tradition and changelessness ­archaic forms of feudal relationship What agents produced economic change needed to ring about market society? ­travelling merchants, “pie­powers” ­unfeudal attributes of calculation and book keeping, trade in money, adventurers, distributing  element in normal pattern of things th th ­8   14 C ­rise of itinerant merchant: urbanization of medieval life ­no ancient customs in commercial activity, no clear rules for taxation ­cities in traditional civilizations = outpost of central government ­cities now existing as independent entities = had to define a law and social order, make governing  institution ­crusades: expedition of exploration/colonization ­bring two very different worlds into contact: feudal society = aversion to trade Byzantium+Venice =urban vitality and enjoyment of money making ­crusaders = pawns of commercial interest ­fourth crusade(1202­1204); Dandolo turned religious expedition into operation of profit ­economic impact of crusades = bringing new economic impetus  new moneyed basis of wealth ore powerful than landed basis of wealth (money over eer thing, money on my mind – Drake) ­63gradual monetization of feudal obligations ­slow commercialization of economic life = amalgamating fragmented economic and political entities of  Europe ­political/economic process ­burgeoning town played central role ­monarchy, kinship, cash ­slow growth of centralized governments ­ fragmented political entities had toll stations; England only country not to have toll stations  within the state ∴ England’s emergence as first great economic power ­France: royal patronage+ growing national power = monetary circulation ­consolidation of political power = encouraging exploration  ­exploration = economic consequence; new flow of precious metals into Europe ­stimulation and stress, speculation and commerce ­exploration = colonization = colonies properl commercial society ­undermine feudal system and bringing about commercial successor change in intellectual atmosphere, beliefs, attitudes, and change in religious climate ­role of Church: theological aversions to principle of gain ­commanding economic importance; collecting/distributing all money in Europe ­transient life on earth; minimize importance of material life ­John Calvin, Calvinism: predestination: from the beginning, gid has chosen whow ill be saved/damned ­religious philosophy ­nothing man could do on earth would change predestination ­followers of Calvinism; hint of what was to follow in afterlife according to ones worldly life ∴ salvation is still a possibility man dedicated to his work = man dedicated to religious life encourage wealth accumulation ­influence of Calvinism on use of wealth: ­worldly success = enjoying life and ease of luxury ­encouraged thrift: saving, investing; respectability to ideal of struggle Protestant Ethic: puritan streak of work+thrift that brought about powerful economic change Gradual monetization of feudal obligations Payments in money dues/rents as opposed to payments in kind 1.growing urban demand for food raising capacity of rural sector to buy goods receiving rents/ dues in money = deteriorate manorial system ­eased cash position of lord, feudal obligations further monetized to keep  lord in cash ­rural nobility slowly lost economic power ­manorial system not compatible with cash economy merchant classes steadily increased power Appearance of the Economic Aspect of Life ­general monetization of life ­emergence of separate economic sphere of activity ­surrounding social life, creating a new aspect of society that previously did not exist ­peasant previously unaware of economic motives of action,  only doing what feudal lord said (tradition/custom) ­lord: military/political/religious motive of power; toward idea of gain/increase ­monetization = land, labour, property commoditized into capital ­Commodity = disposed on market for best price, devoid of responsibilities on part of purchaser; buying  labour of producer ­“pure” labour: quality of mans life bought at market value ­land: something to be bought in hopes of economic return ­property; tangible wealth,; value of property = capacity to earn profit ­by­product of monetization of economic life = enclosure movement in England: enclosed pastures to  raise larger cash crops ­forcible consolidation of plots of land, suitable for commercial farming  ­brought productive employment to the land ­how England “rationalized” its agriculture ­enclosure process = dissolution of feudal ties ­new kind of labour force; work for wages ∴ market­oriented system = labour force social price manufacturers: establish mode of production with new machinery factors of production creation of pre­market into market economy: wage­earning contractual labour modern economics = labour sold, lad rented, capital invested; specific history of cultural and institutional  evolution new social relations of production+distribution: incentives ­market economy = new form of social control to guide economy the profit motive maximize ones income while minimizing expenditures supplementing a livelihood that was largely independent of buying/selling terms of transactions: pattern of economic maximization; powerful for shaping human behaviour market society = social environment; men to be controlled by economic activity ­incentives: create social environment of control monetization of land/labour/capital = universal/critical terms of transactions  ­societal organization = powerful tool for allocating resources  ­mobility of factors of production; raising rewards, increase/decrease incomes, increase/decrease  quantity of social effort  ∴ mobilization of social life = important for evolution of market society ∴ competition appeared ­competition = containment; ability of a single participant to gain strategic position for his own advantage ­competition: market for commodities + factors ­price control mechanism: provided by competitive struggle ­wants of society imposed on market by entire community market society: CONSUMER of great importance consumer = formulate pattern of economic activity supply+demand = cost of production market systems  evolve into capitalism mechanism of social control, socio­economic organization, new structure of law, political  organization, and social institutions ­feudalism  capitalism: ­freedom of individual consumer, growth of political representation of middle class, overthrow  feudal power, accompanying legal and political changes ­rise of parliamentary power and law of contract precapitalism: mercantilism = industrial growth as economic policy, deliberate act of national economic  policy  policies = economic strength protectionist foreign trade subsidy rising manufacturer rise of bourgeois feudalism  mercantilism  capitalism Week Three­ Three Summaries Week 3 Summarized by Mustafa Majeed Modernization: Theories and FactsAuthor(s): Adam Przeworski and Fernando Limongi Source: World Politics, Vol. 49, No. 2 (Jan., 1997), pp. 155-183 Summary: Pg 1-25 (Last 5 pages were algebraic mathematical proofs) Introduction Economic Development and Democracy What makes political regimes rise, endure, and fall? Do democracies emerge as a consequence of economic development? Does rapid economic growth destabilize democracies? Is there some level of development beyond which democracies are more likely to fall? Is European history unique or is it repeating itself in contemporary less developed countries? They seek to examine the impact of development on democracy and ignore all other factors like religion, colonial legacy, position in world system, income diffusion etc. Section I: Explore alternative views of democracy and development by Lipset Section II: Examine vulnerabilities of democracy to economic crisis Section III: Substantive criticism of Lipset’s views Section IV Methodological criticism Section I Lipset observed democracy and development were related in 1959 and it has been among the most studied and debated topics of comparative politics. Aggregate patterns show strong correlation between levels of development and democracy. 2 explanations: a) Endogenous: Democracies are more likely to emerge as countries develop economically b) Exogenous: Democracy might be established independent of economic development but more likely to last in developed countries A) Endogenous saying democracies emerge out of economic development is the same as saying dictatorship is killed by economic development. Story of development is that as authoritarian country develops social structure becomes complex, labor processes begin to require the active cooperation of employees, and new groups emerge and organize. Command economy and political system can’t handle the complexity; civil society emerges and eventually supersedes the Dictatorship. Endogenous explanation= Modernization Theory. Modernization Theory: Process in which end state is democratization. Modernization means gradual differentiation of social structures meaning political structures have to separate (bye bye dictatorship). “The specific causal chains consist of sequences of industrialization, urbanization, education, communication, mobilization, and political incorporation, among innumerable others: a progressive accumulation of social changes that ready a society for democratization” According to Modernization Theory Democracy should be endogenous: Poor authoritarian states should become democratic once they reach a development threshold B) But what if that is wrong and dictatorships and democracies are both likely to die at any level of development? Many causes in history for democracy and fall of dictatorship not tied to development i.e war caused most of Europe democratization and dictatorships may fall if dictator dies economic crises, foreign pressures and not because development “threshold” reached. If development doesn’t lead to democracy why are wealthy nations more likely to be democratic? Wealth sustains democracy. If this is true we would see democracies emerging randomly regardless of development levels but only those with more wealth would survive. NO LONGER MODERNIZATION THEORY: Democracy established exogenously independent of development levels. Though it is not a product of ‘modernization’ it only lasts if state is ‘modern’ Empirical study: Purchasing Power Parity data from 135 countries starting at 1950 or when country became independent/data becomes available and ends 1990. Hypothesis for A is if purchasing power reaches certain level than country should become democratic. A) Data finds that lit -> etc. The model evolved in the West is a historical fact. It happens everywhere regardless of race, colour, creed. MIers would do well to study the Western sequence of growth. Taking the Western model of Mod is forced upon us by the assumptions and goals of MI spokesmen who denounce the West - is politically important and why we speak of Modztn rather than Westernization Western society still provides the most developed model of societal attributes (power, wealth, skill, rationality) which MI spokesmen continue to advocate as their own goal. Their declared policies and programs set our criteria of mod. From the West came the stimuli that undermined traditional society in the MI; for reconstruction of a modern society that will operate efficiently in the world today, the West is still a useful model; what the MI seeks to become But these societies want mod to happen QUICK and in their own way; want "modern wealth but not modern wisdom" etc. But MI mod has its own ethnocentrism, expressed in nationalism and xenophobia MIers seek to dodge Western historical regularities with risky by-passes Basically, Lerner is saying the Western model of modernization is a manifestation of a larger global process. But since it came first (before the MI), it's a model that the MI seeks to emulate without all the cultural elements of the West. 1. The Mobile Personality: Emphathy Physical mobility Many generations ago in the West, men found themselves free to move from native soil (farm, fields) to flats, factories became intimate with the idea of change by direct experience not like the migrant driven by war or famine, this was movement by individuals making choice to seek a better life Social mobility This kind of physical mobility -> social mobility. there grew institutions appropriate to the process after moving you might want a convenient bank, a law and police force, a voice in prescribing standard of behaviour for others So came into being a system of bourgeois values embracing social change as normal The rules of the game had to be worked out: who was to gain, how much, and how? As the profits to be gained from mobility became evident, conflicts over access to the channels of opportunity became sharper. The process can be traced through the evolution of Western property and tax laws; protects the haves without disqualifying the have-nots It was by protecting every man's opportunity to gain that the modern West turned in the direction of social mobility The idea spread that personal mobility is itself a first order value; that social morality is essentially the ethics of social change. A man is what he may become; a society is its potential. A mobile society has to encourage rationality as the basis of choice conditions behaviour and its rewards Traditional man: rejects innovation by saying "it has never been thus" Modern man: "Does it work?" and try the new way While past centuries established the public practices of the mobile society, the 20th c established a mobile sensibility so adaptive to change that it rearranges the self system "Empathy" as Lerner employs the term The mobile person can identify with aspects of his env't and incorporates new demands upon himself that arise out of his habitual experience Projection and introjection = empathy Empathy does not denote sympathy or antipathy -> it may lead to either - understanding may breed dislike as well as affection We are interested in it as a means to operate efficiently in a changing world Basically Lerner is saying the mobile personality involves being able to identify with NEW aspects of the environment through empathy. Since in traditional societies peoples' decisions only involve other known people in known situations, there is no need for a national "ideology" by which people engage in political discourse. In modern society, people are expected to have opinions and they expect their opinions to make a difference; this sustains widespread empathy. People are ready to incorporate new roles and to identify personal values with public issues. This is the Participant Style. 2. Mass Media: The Mobility Multiplier Physical mobility precedes social mobility. Exploration 'opened new worlds'. Gradually, technology made travel easier. This was the beginning of the expansion of human communications. The earlier increase in physical transportation has been multiplied by the expansion of mass communication The mass media brought to the world the vicarious universe Many more people were affected by the expansion of communication media than of transportation systems The media obviates the physical displacement of travel with the psychic displacement of vicarious experience Physical experience Affronts the sensibility with perceptions in their complex "natural" settings You perceive an ensemble of manners and morals that make up a "way of life" Often, the traveler is confused by new cultures that go against his stereotypes and preferred model of reality Vicarious experience Instead of experiencing the complexities of a "natural" environment, mediated experience simplifies the setting as contrived by the creative communicator The receiver gets a composed version of the new reality He has the benefit of superficial perception of the experience as a whole and "comprehension" Taming empathy The traveler must take "responsive action" toward the new stimuli. However painful, even if just asking for directions, it helps discharge the traveler's inner tensions. The audience of vicarious experience has no such discharge channel. The inhibition of response is a learned behaviour. The mass media then is a teacher of interior manipulation. They discipline man in the skills of empathy that spell modernity. They also showed him what roles he might occupy and the opinions he might need. Today, the global network of mass media has recruited enough opinions all around the world to make the "opinions of mankind" a real factor in world politics. There is a real "world public opinion". This has happened because people are learning to imagine how life is organized in different lands. 3. The "System" of Modernity Communications There is an interaction between communication and social systems The mass media is more efficient at spreading psychic mobility among peoples who have already achieved the antecedent conditions of geographic and social mobility; while no modern society functions effectively without a developed system of mass media People who live together in common polities come to distribute information along with other commodities. Systemic interlocking The conditions of modernity form an interlocking system; they grow together or become stunted altogether Systems of media Information flows interact with distribution of power, wealth and status to form a tightly interlocked system - there is interaction between communication systems and social systems Media Systems Oral Systems ChannelBroadcast (mediated) Personal (face to face) Audience Heterogeneous (mass) Primary (groups) ContentDescriptive (news) Prescriptive (rules) SourceProfessional (skill) Hierarchical (status) 1. The direction of change is always from an oral to a media system 2. The degree of change toward media system appears to correlate significantly with changes in other key sectors of the social system These hypotheses are tested and proven... SectorMedia Systems Oral Systems Socioeconomicurban rural Culturalliterate illiterate Politicalelectoral designative Interdependence of modernization variables Aspects of media participation correlate highly with literacy rates. We subsume industrialization under our index or urbanization. Now, having shown that literacy and media participation are highly correlated, we want to show their interdependence with urbanism. CountriesLiteracy Urbanization 22Over 80% 28 % 461-80 % 29.2 % 1241-60 % 25 % 1321-40% 17 % 22Under 20 7.4 % We would like to know how "much" urbanization is required to START modernization. The critical minimum or urbanization appears to between 7-17% (at this level literacy starts to rise significantly Afterwards, the critical optimum appears to be 25% urbanization. Urbanization and literacy rise together in a direct relationship until they reach this point, then literacy continues to rise independently of urbanization. Sequence of Modernization Urbanization is first for cities alone have developed the complex skills and resources which characterize the modern industrial economy.. Within this matrix develop the attributes of that characterize the next phase: literacy and media growth. Literacy develops Media which in turn spreads literacy. Literacy performs the key function; the capacity to read equips people to perform the tasks required in modernizing society. By the "third" phase (part of the second) society is industrialized enough to produce all sorts of media which speeds the spread of literacy. Lerner suggests a common psychological mechanism underlies these phases. That those with the modern personality are the ones first drawn to the city and that urbanism, education, media exposure and so on then train and reinforce the emphatic predisposition that was already present. Each phase of modernization tends to generate the next by some mechanism that operates independently of cultural or doctrinal variations – the modern personality Overview of the phases Note: Cities supply demand for media participation. Literacy supplies media consumers, who stimulate media production. Urbanization: transfer of pop to urban centres stimulated the needs and provides the conditions needed for "take off" towards widespread participation. Only cities require a largely literate pop to function. Literacy The efficient instrument in spreading consumption of urban products beyond city limits When most people are literate, they tend to develop new desires and the means of satisfying them Media participation It is this interplay of desires and satisfactions which characterizes media partic Once people have the skills to handle mobility (via urbanization) and the media (via literacy) they now seek the satisfactions which integrate these skills Rising media partic tends to raise participation in all sectors of the social system Not only does it speed the spread of empathy, but it diffuses those other modern demands to which participant institutions have responded - in the consumer's economy via cash, in the public forum via opinion and in politics via voting Studies show correlations between our indices and economic participation (literacy correlates with industrialization at .87 and at .84 with per capita income) Dependent variableMultiple Correlation Coefficient Urbanization.61 Literacy.91 Media participation.84 Political participation .82 4. The Hurdles of Modernization There are difficulties on the road to modernization today that the West did not have to face. Issues of density For one, the fact that land is no longer "for the taking". The world's population has increased hugely while available land has remained the same. So exploration and physical mobility are discouraged. In these countries, physical mobility still takes the form of urbanization. But the critical limits of urbanization are a function of its population, or its man-to-land ratio. So in countries where the man-to-land ratio is very high, natural increases in urbanization (?) tend to exceed growth of resources (including land) and population density rises steadily. Sheer population density, without urbanization, is an anti-literary force in most societies. Education should be cheaper when pupils live close together, but without urbanization there is less production, distribution and consumption of wealth. So this impedes the provision of free public education, and people can't afford to go to school. Scatter Looking at the correlation between urbanism and media participation, we get a .58 for 54 countries. As soon as the underdeveloped countries are added, it drops to .47. There is a great "scatter" of data reported by underdeveloped countries. Whereas modern countries have achieved "optimum" relations between urbanism, literacy and media participation, the traditional societies show extremely variant "Growth" patterns Why? 1. Postwar movement to capital cities. This is "urbanization" on the record, but involves mostly people who don't work, earn or buy. 2. Government handouts which facilitate "Social control" rather than "individual participation" Part of a trend in which governments seeks to induce the symbols of modernity in a sequence that goes against the organic model. These are symbolic diffusion, rather than an institutional outgrowth of needs internal to an increasingly participant society. Week Four- Missing Week Five- Modernization and Dependency Valenzuela & Valenzuela • The reading is a comparative look at modernization theory and dependency theory through the lens of post WWII Latin America • After WWII, scholars mostly agreed that modernization theory could be used to explain disparities in global development • It was through the study of Latin America that the dominant theory of modernization proved to be flawed • Latin America-- economic stagnation post WWII Modernization Perspective • polar ends of an evolutionary continuum • tradition as the starting point and modernity as the end result • notion of a threshold of modernity- at what point does a society “flip” from one side to the other? Is there a tangible point? • traditional societies are characterized by: o kinship societal structure o little spatial or social mobility o primary economic activities • modern societies are characterized by: o differentiated political structures with rational legal sources of authority o high spatial and social mobility o secondary economic activities • researchers believed that the structures of traditional societies were both an expression and a cause of underdevelopment and for a society to develop to become modern they would have to adopt new social norms o at the individual level they would have to adopt more modern values o either explanation requires rejection of traditional way of life on a large scale • the traditional society is explained only as the opposite of the modern one, described by the authors as a “residual category” o all that is not modern • individual developing countries will replicate the path followed by early modernizers • Rationality as a modern concept o W. Moore definition of modernization- the process of rationalization of social behaviour and social organization o scholars at the time looked only at economic rationality which they saw to be present in modern societies but not in traditional societies  Prof. Jung explained that rationality is unique to one’s circumstances  i.e. what is rational is relative to one’s own situation and incentive structure • the major flawed discovered by critics of modernization theory was the explanation of tradition as being all that is not modern o arbitrary designation o fails to explain traditional characteristics that survived or gained renewed importance in modern societies Latin America and the Modernization Perspective • traditional attitudes and institutions stemming from colonialism have been major obstacles to domestic economic, social and political development initiatives o possible explanations for “irrational” detriment to modernization include values of Catholicism, large Indian populations and aristocratic rural elites • Lipset o Great Britain derived their advantange in modernization from the Protestant Ethic and abandonment of feudal ascriptive elements o Latin America’s ties to Catholicism have fostered the social structure that supports elitism and feudalism o economic underdevelopment is a function of the lack of adequate entrepreneurial activity o education system in Latin America continues these ideologies • K.H. Silvert o there is something in the culture and individuals in Latin America that prevents them from developing o differences in rationality between the Western World in Latin America with
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