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Political Science
Melissa Levin

thJanuary 102012POL201 LecturesThemes practicing development schisms between urban and rural development food security etc StateSociety Relations in the Third WorldWhat is a StateWeber monopoly of legitimate use of force in a given territoryRueschemeyer and Evans denition a set of organizations invested with the authority to make binding decisions for people and organizations juridically located in a particular territory and to implement those decisions using if necessary force State Government and RegimeGuillermo ODonnels 2004 15 a regime refers to the patterns formal and informal and explicit or implicit that determine the channels of access to principal government positions the characteristics of the actors who are admitted and excluded from such access and the resources and strategies that they are allowed to use for gaining accessGovernment refers to those in power at a given moment to the groups in control of the state machinery NOT interchangeable with stateTakes a lot to change a state only takes an election to change the governmentDissolution of USSR collapse of a regimeSOCIETYGreenfeld and Martins denition in this weeks Migdal reading societys only denitive characteristic is that it is the outermost social structure for a certain group of individuals who whatever might be their attitudes toward it view themselves as its members and experience their identity as being determined by it Can states do what they set out to doState CAPACITY Theda Skocpol in Bringing the State Back In denes states capacity as the means to implement ofcial goals especially over the actual or potential opposition of powerful social groups or in the face of recalcitrant socioeconomic circumstances Is it a legitimate state when drug cartels run the government In whose interest does the state actSkocpol denes state autonomy as the ability of political elites to formulate and pursue goals that are not simply reective of the demands or interests of social groups classes or societystate cant just do what it wants to do Remember Peter Evans Embedded autonomy Rapid industrial developmentrobust state BUUUUUTModernization Theory changes in society will promote changes in the stateMarxists and dependency class dominance international bourgeois capture of the stateMigdal STATEINSOCIETY approachthJanuary 172012Main historical characteristics of statesociety in the colonial world Then move into a discussion on authoritarian regimes in the Third World How elites attempt to control the masses in their societies How do states and societies organize themselvesThere are 4 main ways that have been identied for statesocieties to exist1Patrimonialismrefers back to Max Weber patrimonial state is statehood in traditionalist terms focus on the leader through loyalty or kinship ties Public ofce is exercised as private property Private efdom where resources of state ownership of the state is held by private interests patrimonial leader pilfering country NB Zaire Today we be talking mostly about neopatrimonialismthe state resembles a rationallegal entity but if in fact patrimonial 2Corruptionan important way in which states and societies function Corruption is illegal Takes place where a public ofcial will transmit a benet to an individual who may not be entitled to that benet in exchange for a bribe Small bribes to get faster services Illegal underground transactions Unclear distinction between corruption that is accepted like Super Pacs in the US and underground corruption Not all of us re equal because not all of us have the same capacity to pay the state Erodes the idea of equality Some organizations measure the level of corruption Ie Transparency International Often it is a sign of democratic practise that corruption is exposed 3Clientelismpatronclient relations Relationship of exchange Unequal vertical However is mutually benecial Provides goods access to jobs etc in exchange for support usually political supportie votes Characterized by strong interpersonal relations arrangement is not legal but not illegal Widespread but not restricted to the third world Threat to democracy4corporatismstatesociety relations A system of internet representation in which certain units are organized in compulsory units Giving this in exchange for observing some controls on the selection of leaders etc Unit that will haevasay in the way in which a state function State capitalism and the developmental state Ordinarily you could have fundamental disagreement about labour unions Corporate union State sits at the helm but draws in these interests State will use its power to x any problemUsed to control them or coopt them Main structures of the state inherent from colonial times have a great impact on the type of developmental state that a country will become Low capacity to implement policies servicesPETER EVANS 3 TYPES OF STATESNonDemocratic Regimescommunist or capitalisttotalitariansultanistic authoritarian regimesclose to an ideal type Personal leadership based mostly on fear Haiti Brownlee neopatrimonial also resemble sultanistic regimes Syria Tunisia Iraq Libya Military and PoliticsBetween 1946 and 1970 59 developing countries experienced 274 attempted coups involving the military Handelman 223From 19581984 there were more than 62 coups and 60 failed coups in SSA affecting over 80 of countries in the region Ibid 224Syria Egypt India Pakistan Iraq Argentina etc Various types of military regimesa state actor autonomous from the governmentorestorers of order temporary saying theyre coming in to clean up depose the government since the 80s and 90s this kind of intervention is accompanied by democratic discourseobureaucraticauthoritarian regimeslike China Debateable how worth it the suffering is Tremendous violations of human rights
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