All Lectures of 2nd Semester.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Ryan Hurl

thJanuary 12Parties and Electionsst1 SubmissionThe Supreme Courts job is to make sure that people know what the law is On of the largest differences in both models is what equates to the social safety net welfare statePeak level bargaining is characterized through the German modelTraining is a more dangerous decision in the US due to a high worker turnover ratio Market Greater flexibility easier to fire people Social More training better unions harder to fire people Liberal market economies typically do better for job creationEasier to sustain growing inequality while it is dynamic and has low levels of unemploymentGrowing inequality may not be salient during a time of economic growth It is a combination of the tax system union decline technologyskills and executive compensationfinance that all contribute to growing inequality in the United States Cultural explanation People working harder and wanting to emulate the success of Steve Jobs can also lead to rising levels of inequality Increased returns for high IQ entering into an information age College education Transition of Cognitive ability to next generation Assortative Mating Smuggest Ruling Class Ever Meritocracy Declining marriage rate Declining work force participation gradual yet constant decline that does not change with the state of the economy Increasing crime several consequences Decreasing religiousity general correlation between wealth and religionNew Lower Class Political sources of inequlaity neoliberalism or inequality enhancing policies occurs in both partiesPolicy changes in the 1970s created a new political trajectory that started the inequality Nixon was the last newdeal president All of the offices Nixon created were listed 30 seconds ago Attempts to expand healthcare labour laws and so forth were voted out by congress as deregulation occurred simultaneouslyBusiness Organizations acting on the basis of the economic interestsLabour policies reflected through Federalism making it easier for businesses to relocate when threatened with unionization Groups that represent business make up 50 of interest groups as a whole 23rds of those represent the interests of the wealthy Business presence does not always equate into power you must break down the issues on which they are most interested in Particularistic Issues of concern to a relatively narrow range of firms agriculture for trade protection Conflictual competing business factions trade with Canada in regard to lumber Unifying corporate taxation regulation Public opinion does not form over all issues Larger issues must be paid greater attention to whereas the smaller ones can be swept under the rugPublic opinion shifts occasionally with business interests other times against Tax reform act of 1986 Genuine example of bipartisanship prereform situation unified business opposition indifferent public bipartisan consensus on the need for reformstrategy of reform manipulative legislative procedures to limit influence strategic sidepaymentsreform unravels return of support for targeted tax breas polarization of taxes nd2 SubmissionThe rules of the Game Selecting Presidential CandidatesLegislative Caucus 16001824 selection by national legislatorsConvention System 1024 1912 Selection by party elites and party membersJust because you win majority of primary doesnt mean you will mean nominations John F Kennedy convinced party elites to take chance on him because he won primaries such as West Virginia Demonstrated that there is a relatively openness even under this old systemMixed System 19121968 Primaries combined with convention system for Presidential selection More resistant to the ideas of elites similar to Canadian system Someone entirely elected by elites but not in primaries eg Linden Johnson democratic conjunctions massive ridings massive violence If we do not reform nominating system the entire political system will fall apart They refer to the fact that antiparty politics will rise the old system if not reform will lead to violence Based in the consumptions that this system was excluded from the public But eg William James was able to win nomination in 1964 1968 was a bad year and the Republicans should have nominated someone elseReform System 1968now Primaries are now only game in townOnce you shift to the primaries system you have a more ideological politics The Consequences of Primaries1Unrepresentative Primary Voters primary strategy conflicts with general election strategy The Problem are primary voters really unrepresentativeThe problem of this claim is that primary voters are different from the general spectrum in studies the public as a whole doesnt vote you compare people who vote in the primary and people who in the election and primary voters and voters in the party The problem is that party tried to act as the extremism so they decided to shift focus to more moderate voters in the part This was proven successful when Democratic Party elected President Clinton and Governor Clinton They tend to favour outsiders and create problems with governing while primary voters listen to candidates that go against Washington 2The role of money in elections By introducing primary season longer than one year you are making raising money for campaign more sensual for candidates increase significance of money in election Campaign Finance in AmericaFederal Election Campaign Act 1971Partial funding of presidential campaignsReporting requirements Strict donation requirementsJudicial interventionstatutory change The absent of cooperate finance law was crucial by the 1970s things have changed due to the fact that television campaigning became more important once you have advanced technical campaigning the needs to raise money can actually restore the electoral process The potential for corruptions and arrangements increase so are the escalations of battles for finance campaign for advertisements Partial funding for presidential campaign evening loans in parliament differences in wealth should not lead to complete differences in influencesfederal campaign laws 1972Buckley v Valleo 1978The basic fallout is that the law according the court is that when it tries to stop individual to spend own money on federal election you cannot use your own money We are trying to prevent corruptions of individuals1979 party buildingAllowing under the law unregulated spending in campaign fundraising and party activities Allow party to raise money on things that are not necessary on specific candidatesCol GOP Federal Campaign 1972Election hearing advertisement party still cannot directly fund specific candidates but as long as they do not mention a specific candidate they can fund for them Its about the distinctions between directly engagements and ads that are simply trying to raise issues which are on the table and public eyes and they are obviously about a certain candidates Key termsHard moneySpecific findings on specific elections and finance for campaignSoft moneyGoing to political parties to build parties on a whole the law doesnt limits soft money spending but simply shifted it around Political Action CommitteesBCRALimits soft money national parties state parties Overall the attempt to limit the influence of money fail it just changes who receive it and how they spend it About 3 billion dollars is on electioneering spending the money figure has not been turned off Restrictions on electioneering communicationCase According to the law you cannot air a film where you cannot criticize Hilary Clinton in a free country even in time you find it inconvenience Preventing bunch of individuals criticising Clinton cooperation as people and rights of individuals there is a black out period that you cannot run negative advertisements Cooperation vs People cooperation is not a person but they are a group of people they should be allowed to act together to express opinions but that seems to be an opponent to freedom of speech The Ultimate Impact of Campaign FinanceWhat exactly are the effects of campaign finance lawsMoney is a weapon that
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