POL208- Cheat Sheet.docx

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

POL208 Cheat Sheet *Important key concepts are in bold Lec1- Intro to IR  Levels of Analysis o J David Singer- 1960  Domestic/ International & Micro/ Macro o Russett, Starr& Kinsella  Individual, decision makers, gov’t structure, society, IR, world system  Theory Parts o Assumption o Logic- causal explanation o Predictions/ hypothesis Lec2+3- Realism & Liberalism:  The Need for Analytical tools: Sylvie and Bruno o Cannot use reality as a model- too complicated, must simplify and omit  30 Years War o Defenestration of Prague (1618)  Ferdinand the second sends ambassadors to take of Prague- they’re thrown out the window  Sends his forces- Czechs starts organizing protestant league o The price of the war- 50% of the population dies within 30 years o Ends in 1648- Treaty of Westphalia  He who rules, decides on the religion- right to decline outside intervention  Secular takes over religious authority  1 clear statement of sovereignty  Sovereignty definition- o A people, territory, bureaucracy, the king as a legal entity o Monopoly over the functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all external intervention (monopoly over the legitimate use of force) o The right to conduct foreign relations and sign treaties o Sovereign equality o Internal sovereignty- excluding internal challenges through use of force o External sovereignty- exclude external intervention, other countries must give recognition as a sovereign power o UN- clarifies and institutionalizes sovereignty  Westphalian System o Independence- NO= interdependence o Non intervention- NO= UN; foreign policy interests o Equality- theory YES; practice NO; US is hegemon o Internal sovereignty- NO; civil wars, Arab spring, etc. o External sovereignty- NO; we cannot repel intervention o Territory, population, bureaucracy o Therefore, though in practice the system is violated, it is still in place as a benchmark  Realism o Bismark- Realpolitik  Minimalist, but expansionist when need be  ‘Unholy alliances’- if they serve your interests you’ll ally yourself to them, but can stab them in the back  Power politics; actors are completely self-interested o E.H.Carr- Realism as an alternative to idealism o Thomas Hobbes- Leviathan  The State of Nature POL208  Man is a selfish hedonist  All people are equal, rational and possessing a passionate love of survival (right of nature)  A person’s right of nature justifies violence against everyone else  In the interests of personal survival, people will come around to agreeing that they should renounce their right to use violence  This is an unstable equilibrium. The moment one party deviates- there is disorder. Need for an enforcer  The creation of the Leviathan enforces stability- citizens give up their independence to buy stability  The Leviathan gets ultimate authority and a monopoly over the use of violence o Hobbes & IR  The international system is in a Hobbesian state of nature; individual= state/unitary actor  Anarchy- ‘without a leader’; the absence of higher governing authority beyond the state; no world gov’t  Anarchy does NOT mean chaos; No leviathan o Niccolo Machiavelli- The Prince  Understanding human nature is key for understanding politics: humans are selfish and evil; determination/power prevails over reason  “It is better to be feared than loved.”  The end justifies the means  Modern Realism o Hans J. Morgenthau (Politics Among the Nations 1948)  Neorealism o Kenneth Waltz (Theory of International Politics, 1979)  The implications of anarchy- the need to maximize security  Anarchy is constant- it is what differentiates the international form the domestic  While anarchy is a constant- the distribution of power is not (only major powers really matter)  Summary o The state is the most important actor and it is a rational and unitary actor o The international system is anarchic NOT chaotic o States seek to maximize security/power; national interest o States sometimes rely on force or the threat of force in order to achieve their ends Lec4- Critical Approaches:  The liberal solution o State of Nature- not as bleak o Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy o The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution o Domestic structures matter; institutions matter o Rights exist independent of power- Life, Liberty, Property o Progress is possible  Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) o ‘Perpetual Peace’- not a realist piece o Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli) o Modern reading of the ‘Kantian Peace’: democracy, trade and international organizations= peace between nations  Adam Smith o ‘ The Wealth of Nations’ (1776) POL208 o Economics and Peace  Laissez-faire: minimal gov’t intervention in economic affairs  Humans are rational profit maximizers  Trade generates benefits  War will erode said benefits  More trade leads to less war (Liberal peace)  Neoliberalism (Institutional Liberalism) o Can we think of structural conditions that would induce cooperation- without relying on assumptions regarding human nature, morality or natural rights? YES= Institutions! o Absolute vs. Relative Gains  Liberalism Summary o Actors are rational and follow self interest o Private interest does not necessarily contradict collective interest o Actors would prefer to avoid conflict if it affects their prosperity and well being (absolute gains) o The collective will is rational and prudent; narrow interest on the other hand can distort these tendencies o Actors’ interests are shaped and constrained by institutions o The right kind of institutions (democracy; international organizations) can mitigate conflict by better reflecting the collective will  Marxism o Capitalists get rich (more capital) o Invest in more machinery/ labor saving devices (to increase productivity) o Results in increased profits and capital o Fewer workers needed (unemployment and falling wages) o Less demand for goods, hence need to make them cheaper o More investment etc.… (Go to step 2) o Capitalism is not sustainable o Results in revolution o Marx was wrong- historically more revolutions should have happened o Lenin and Hobson: Imperialism explains the lack of revolutions (Marx implicitly assumed a closed market- not exports/imports)  Neo-marxism o Immanuel Wallerstein o Holistic view: analysis based on systematic production processes and class relations o Long term processes- historical perspective o Core vs. Periphery: a powerful and wealthy core dominates and exploits a weak and poor periphery; this hierarchy is quite stable o Semi-periphery: intermediate layer of countries that combine features of both core and periphery- instrumental for preserving the system  Constructivism o Can lead to ‘realist’ or ‘liberal’ predictions- it is a different way of understanding the world o Not necessarily a political theory- does not come with assumptions of what is good/bad o Revolves around actors and social interactions o The social world is constantly changing and is constantly being reproduced o However- identities and norms are relatively stable; slow change o It is better in analyzing patterns of behavior rather than specific events o Provides a theory for the origin of preferences and interests o We cannot understand the world by observing it from the outside; intersubjectivity o identity and social institutions define our interests; interests are socially constructed POL208  Feminism o Debates within the Feminist Camp  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Liberal Approaches Radical Approaches (Votes for women) (Affirmative action) (Still a patriarchal system) o Ann Tickner o Empiricism: the gender gap; women in war, etc. o Critique: these studies still use male dominated system of knowledge Lec5- Rational Choice:  Rationality= Based on all available actions, the actor has a clear ordering of preferences over all possible outcomes  Game Theory o Models social interaction as a game o Each game has a certain structure based in actors’ preferences  Coordination Games o Different yet non conflicting preferences o Solutions tend to be stable (no incentive to defect)  Non-Cooperative Games o Conflicting and competing preferences (sometimes- zero sum games) o Prisoner’s dilemma o Chicken  Nash Equilibrium (prisoner’s Dilemma) o State equilibrium; actors will not change their policy unless they can agree o Defect= a dominant strategy  The Evolution of Cooperation o Tit for tat (nice, retaliatory, forgiving)  develops cooperation o The problem of finite games (Backward induction) o What institutional design can facilitate ‘tit for tat’? (neoliberalism) Lec6- War I:  ???????? o   Lec7- War II:  Causes of War— 3 “Images” (waltz) o 1st Image (individual) (bio/socio/psych)  Human Naturebio/socio/psych reasons that lead to war—focus on questions of human nature—why do we have wars—wars because human nature is not good o 2nd Image (state) (Domestic Pol./Eco.)  what factors in domestic politics drive war  regime type/economic interests/interest groups  National Interest  Diversionary Wars  Democratic Peace  Interest group- MIC; capital; oil  Ideology POL208 o 3rd Image (world image) (World System)  Balance of Power  Assumption: a balanced system is more stable; states will therefore join together to maintain a balanced system in face of an emerging power  Dangers of not balancing= short-term good—long-term uncertainity; Balancing is expensive  Bipolarity= stability (Waltz); Naturally balanced; clear, predictable, not leaving room for error or miscalculations BUT no flexibility, volatile, zero sum  Multipolarity= stability (Morgenthau); Flexible, more than one workable balancing coalition BUT too flexible, lots of room for error and miscalculation, bandwagon  Power transition  power parity between the great powers is the most volatile and dangerous time  More likely to go to war if we think we can win OR are more likely to win—most dangerous time is when we think we can win  Hegemon- life’s good until threatened  Transitions when: B too weak to challenge A’s rule/ Mutual deterrence or War/ B exerts Order  offense/defense balance Lec8- International Crisis:  Just War Theory (Walzer) o Jus Ad Bellum  Just Cause- self defense (UN charter)  Last resort  Declared publicly by a legitimate authority  Proportionality- benefits outweigh harm  The war is winnable  Preemption; prevention?  preemption is recognized in international law— if you are going to be attacked and attack is imminent—imminence is key component of preemption o Jus in Bello- Justice in war  Hague (1899, 1907); Geneva (1949)- conventions that tried to regulate the acts that would be deemed just during war  Discrimination- protecting civilians (Geneva; nuclear weapons? [Deterrence] aerial bombing [smart bombs]? Terrorism)  Proportionality- double effect; not about balance of casualties  Recognizes 2 consequences- one that we intended and the unintended
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