Dependency theory.docx

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Dependency theory- development and underdevelopment emerged simultaneously. Some nations are developed and some are underdeveloped, one just feeding off the other. Depedency theory argues that all countries are modern, even developing nations, they are not behind in time rather exist as a result of modernity. Underdevelopment happens under the condition of resource extraction. Developing nations are the way they are because of the way they have been interted into the world system. The development of some depends on the underdevelopment of others. Example - industrial revolution depended on resource extraction. ________________________________________ Dependency theory states that developed nations only reached their level of development through the exploitation of developing nations. Developed nations are referred to as the "core". Latin America is part of the "semi-periphery", and the "periphery" are the developing nations of today, such as African countries. These developing countries remain in the periphery and continue to be exploited by developed nations today to remain in their positon of power. The semi-periphery prevents a union of power within the Global South to enact structural change of this system. (I think the theorist was Waltsman?) Modernization theory- All nations develop in the same way. This theory assumes that there is only one idea of development - contemporary "modern" societies and that all other nations will take the same path to development (through industrialization) to reach the point modernity. Key Theorist: Walt Whitman Rostow (development trajectory) Race to the Bottom- This is a socio-economic concept that is argued to occur between countries, states, provinces or territories as an outcome of globalization, free trade,neoliberalism or economic deregulation. When competition becomes fierce between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and production, governments are given increased incentive to cut business regulations, labor standards, environmental laws and business taxes. Absolute vs. Comparative Advantage- Ricardo's Comparative Advantage: if everyone chooses free trade then global welfare is maximized. However, free trade benefits some and hurts some since it is not equally benefitical. Stolper- Samuelson Theorem: if you are a owner of relativetly abundant resrouces/ facts of production, then you are going to benefit from free trade. Owners of scarce resources benefit from protectionism and loose out from free trade. Guns vs. Butter- Club of Rome / Limits to growth- Declarative / Constitutive treaties- Opinio Juris- Legal positivism/Natural Law- Pacta Sunt Servanda- Responsibility to protect- A United Nations initiative established in 2005. It consists of an emerging norm, or set of principles, based on the idea that sovereignty is not a right, but a responsibility. It focuses on preventing and halting four crimes: genocide,war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing, which it places under the generic umbrella term of, Mass Atrocity Crimes. The Responsibility to Protect has three "pillars". 1. A state has a responsibility to protect its population from mass atrocities; 2. The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility; 3. If the state fails to protect its citizens from mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort. Life boat ethics- This is a metaphor for resource distribution proposed by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1974. Hardin's metaphor describes a lifeboat bearing 50 people, with room for ten more. The lifeboat is in an ocean surrounded by a hundred swimmers. The "ethics" of the situation stem from the dilemma of whether (and under what circumstances) swimmers should be taken aboard the lifeboat. Hardin compares the lifeboat metaphor to theSpaceship Earth model of resource distribution, which he criticizes by asserting that a spaceship would be directed by a single leader — a captain — which the Earth lacks. Hardin asserts that the spaceship model leads to thetragedy of the commons. In contrast, the lifeboat metaphor presents individual lifeboats as rich nations and the swimmers as poor nations. Spaceship earth- This is a world view term usually expressing concern over the use of limited resources available on Earth and the behavior of everyone on it to act as a harmonious crew working toward the greater good. The metaphor was first used by Henry George and the the thesis is that the everyone is in it together and therefore should help everybody else. Externalities- In economics, an externality is a cost or benefit which results from an activity or transaction and which affects an otherwise uninvolved party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. For example, manufacturing activities which cause air pollution impose costs on the whole society, while fire-proofing a home may improve the fire safety of neighbors. If external costs exist, such as pollution, the good will be overproduced by an unregulated market, as the producer does not take into account the external costs when producing the good. If there are external benefits, such as inpublic safety, too little of the good would be produced by private markets as producers and buyers do not take into account the external benefits to others. Here, overall cost and benefit to society is defined as the sum of the economic benefits and costs for all parties involved. Neo Functionalism- A theory of regional integration, building on the work of Ernst B. Haas. Jean Monnet's approach to European integration, which aimed at integrating individual sectors in hopes of achieving spill-over effects to further the process of integration, is said to have followed the neofunctional school's tack. Haas later declared the theory of neofunctionalism obsolete, after the process of European integration started stalling in the 1960s. Neofunctionalism describes and explains the process of regional integration with reference to how three causal factors interact with one another: (a) growing economic interdependence between nations, (b) organizational capacity to resolve disputes and build international legal regimes, and (c) supranational mar
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