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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
William Nelson

Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe, born in 1546 and died in 1601, was a Danish nobleman. Tycho lost his nose after being in a duel, which was replaced with a silver/gold nose. He contributed to the world by devising the most precise instruments available, before the invention of the telescope. From observing supernovas, his observations showed that supernovas did not change positions with respect to other stars, therefore it was a real star. There was an absence of parallax from stars, so Brahe believed that the Earth was in the center of the universe. Isaac Newton Isaac Newton, born in 1642 and died in 1727, was one of the most influential scientists of all time, and an important person in the scientific revolution. Newton invented calculus and formed the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which controlled how the physical universe looked to scientists for the next three hundred years. Newton changed our understandings with 3 Laws of Motion. Newton build the first practical telescope. Newton was believed to have an IQ over two hundred, a genius. Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler, born in 1571 and died in 1630, was a German mathematician and an astronomer. In 1600, Kepler was invited by Brahe to work with him at his island. Kepler was given the assignment on finding why/how Mars appears to walk backwards across the night sky. No model of the solar system gave any help. Using Brahe’s detailed observations, after he had passed away, Kepler discovered that planets traveled in ellipses. Planets such as Earth, had orbits very close to a circle while other planets like Mars had more of a stretched out one. This became Kepler’s First Law. Nicholas Copernicus Nicholas Copernicus, born in 1473 and died in 1543, was a mathmetician and an astromoner. He formulated a model of the universe, which placed the Sun, and not the Earth, in as the center of the universe. He suggested that Earth’s rotation accounted for the rise and setting of the sun, the movement of stars, and the cycle of seasons. Copernicus published a book, which established that planets orbited the sun, not the Earth. Copernicus is considered the father of modern astronomy. Ptolemy Ptolemy, born around AD 90 and died around AD 168, was a Roman astrologer, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and a poet. Ptomely embraced that Earth was in the center of the universe, and that all planets were in perfect circular orbits. The Ptolemaic System of the universe gave an acceptable description of planetary motion. He was one of the last ancient great astronomers. His description lasted more than 1000 years, until Copernicus rejected the idea, and came up with the heliocentric system. Ptolemy also cataloged 1028 stars, and created a book with m
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