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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Haines

Tuesday, November 30 2010 th N Nuclear Warfare - Hiroshima and Nagasaki were first examples of actual use of nuclear weapons in wartime - Primary concern to end war > destroy japan - Unconditional surrender - Warning to the soviets - Bombs used: power of 12 000 tnt > equiv. to 200 b29 bombers - Effect of nuc. Bomb: - i. the blast - ii. The heat radiation - iii. Nuclear radiation > lasting damages - nuc. Bombs work in two ways: fusion, fission - power of the nuc. Technology increased with the development of the H Bomb - > over 50 million tons of tnt Shift from the sword to the shield - Elements of deterrence in the realm of nuclear war: i. Phsy. Factor of total war is enough of a reason not to go to nuclear war. ii. capacity of a second strike: if enemy believes you will not be able to retaliate with equal force, than there is no deterrence to attack - Must have the capacity for a second strikestrike back against initial attack Massive Retaliation > Flexible Response - Deterrence was established during the cold war quickly between the us and the ussr - the capacity of total retaliation from both sides > lack of flexibility - is it worth it? - Makes diplomacy impossible > forg. Policy is completely under the umbrella of nuclear strategy - US in response to the risk of total war by accident > came up with, flexible response> - Flexible response > meeting soviet attack with the same means, proportionality - US allies, Germany, upset with this policy as nuclear retaliation was a means of protection for west Germany - NATO had to come to an agreement with the policy of flexible response Extended deterrence > prevented both sides from using nuclear weapons - High number of USSR + WARSAW pact > only way to defend western Europe was nuclear weapons - Some countries in Europe did not believe that the US was willing to use nuclear weapons in order to defend Europe > main country in disbelief was France - Was a core issue within the framework of NATO - France decided to begin their own nuclear weapon in order to protect themselves - Deterrence must be in the eyes of your enemies, not in the eyes of your allies
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