decision-makers, decision-making (own notes)

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Haines

Decisions & Decision Makers Realism emphasizes self-help and survival. Constructivism considers change. Until recently, (20-35 years ago) political science in international relations was very reluctant to change. The box of decision making for the most part was left closed. But we know have a better understanding of international and internal relations. Today we will be looking at the individual, government, and small groups. There are different models of choice the first of these models is the most well-known rational choice model. At its core, it is about purpose I select an option because I want to pursue that goal. You analyze all the options available, and you maximize expected utility of the consequences. It is instrumental it is assumed that a) you have all the required information b) all the options are in front of your eyes c) this option can receive a hierarchy or ranking so that you can make a calculation between cost and benefit. The right choice model is a model where you represent a choice by given expected utility to your option. The next step is game theory modeling interaction between individuals. Analysts use this with states. The right choice model gives an image of international relations as a game of chess where one move leads to other possible moves of your opponent. It is inspired by economics. These formal games help us to explain the likelihood of cooperation vs. the likelihood of conflict. They may help us to explain some optimal results and indeed John Nash received a noble price for his work on game theory. The game theory can be applied to the Cold War. The limits of this model are endless as they are based on assumptions ex in real life we hardly ever had all the required information, and information tends to be ambiguous or contradictory. Therefore to make sense of information is already difficult. If you are in a crisis situation, you may not have the necessary time to acquire all these options you would need experts. The right choice model therefore is an ideal model, but it still constitutes the core of political science. Limited Rationality Model This model takes into account a legal mold in the way humans interact. Eric Simon believed that individuals dont maximize utility, for them maximization but instead we just aim for satisfaction. What a decision maker will often do is pick up the first that satisfies his outcome. In other words, it is a sequences process whereby the first option that comes up that is good enough will be in fact chosen. It my not be the best one, it just is the first one. The first one that satisfies your goal roughly. The model of donderationality is closer to our actual decision making process. Lastly, there are concepts that modify these two models. Some may be seen
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