Outline for the fall semester

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Haines

POL208 Midterm December 7 , 2010 2:00-4:00PM - Define 5/6 International Relations Terms worth 10 marks each - Respond to 1/2 Essay Questions worth 50 marks - Things to keep in mind: o Keep answers relevant, get to the point o Definitions should be at least a page in length o Essay should be several pages in length o Pay attention to analytical framework o Explain events with theories that we learned in class o Draw connections between things. Supposed to try to connect to different paradigms in your analysis. o Theories: make assumptions about state actors, impose a rational model of thinking, improve knowledge of world politics, improve knowledge of war o Definitions should include: Definition of the concept Example should be transnational Relevance to International Relations Important Definitions: Globalization: fundamental shift or transformation in the scale of human social organization that links distant communities together and expands the power relations at different levels across regions and continents. Making this possible are technological advancements and economic policies. Realism: this is a theoretical framework for understanding international relations. This theory focuses on the importance of security and power in the way that the state engages in global politics. The idea of security comes from the idea that in order to achieve this state, the country must ensure that it can deal with threats from other states. There are two ways of approaching realism and the security of the state: power maximizing (this is a offensive method) or security seeking (defensive method). Power maximising involves being secure when the state is the biggest and most powerful state. Security seeking involves meeting the status quo. The cold war is probably the best example to draw upon to demonstrate realist thinking in practice. This involved an arms war between the U.S and the Soviet Union, as both states were striving to secure themselves by being as powerful/ more powerful than the other. This was the only way to ensure their survival. Liberalism: The fundamental role of liberalism is to try and transform the international system to overcome constraints. Liberalism is a philosophy of freedom (from constraints, fear). The state is the servant of freedom. The government is the safest precaution against arbitrary intrusion. There are many forms of liberal states: laissez-faire capitalism, socialist governments, and constitutional monarchy. Liberalism in world politics often results in contradictions. Justice in the world is relative. Liberal values can be a cause for war (ie: peace keeping missions) www.notesolution.com Outline for the Fall Semester: 1. Introduction: Three events that shaped history: a) Hiroshima - Ended WWII - ZZZZZZJapanese) ZZZ - Z - Truman administration decision making - Bureaucratic reasons, scientists were not sure of consequences, US did not want to show potential failure b) Fall of the Berlin Wall - Nobody predicted the end of the cold war would happen like this - Tangible Factors: o Gorbachev (1975): wanted to improve and reform Soviet Union, launched domestic reform and international negotiations, decrease soviet budget to improve relations o ZZZZ-interventionistZ influx of E. Euro immigrants to W. Euro o Hundreds of immigrants passed through the border in 3 hours - Non-Tangible: o West German media flowed into Eastern Germany o There was a flow of money between the two sides c) 9/11 - Failure of intelligence and prestige of U.S., failure of global intelligence - There were signs, but there was a general lack of public and political acceptance - This was because U.S. has military presence in Saudi Arabia - Al-Qaeda is an informal network - Continental U.S. has never been attacked before - Domestic security has changed (department of homeland security) - Globalization, mass communication, and travel made 9/11 possible Understanding Why These Events Occurred: a) Individual Leaders: personality, beliefs, generation, perception b) Role of Decision Makers: position and represented institutions, status, influence c) Structure of Government: what is the system d) Characteristics of Society: economic, resources, culture e) Level of Classic International Relations: historical relations emerging trends f) The World System: bipolar to unipolar to multipolar 2. Making Sense of Globalization: Basic Definition: widening and deepening of interconnection between people and societies around the world - Fundamental shift or transformation in the scale of human social organization that links distant communities together and expands the power relations at different levels across regions and continents. Making this possible are technological advancements and economic policies (see important definitions). www.notesolution.comFundamental Aspects: a) Traveling: a. Compression of time b. More exchanges c. Opening of different cultures and languages d. Transmission of disease e. Terrorism on global scale f. Massive immigration b) Media a. Television immediate, non-stop, events receive immediate challenge b. Mobile Phone send and receive information, impacts business c. Internet news, individual participation, hard to control flow of information c) Financial Activities a. Money transfers b. Assets spread around the world c. Interconnectedness d. Global branches rids local markets The Impact on Classic Interstate Relationships: Minimalist Position: International politics remains the same in its essence. The states are the main actors who can use military force, has power. Consider globalization not truly global. Maximalist Position: Globalization is fundamentally changing the nature of the state itself. Issues are being dealt with at the level of global governance. State is losing capacity to regulate. Consequences
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