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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Haines

IDENTIFICATIONS Complex terrorism: Homer-Dixon warns us that modern capitalist states leave a lot of room for terrorists to attack o Power linestransfer substations o Communications infrastructures Concentration of resources for economies of scale The right attack point inability for states to respond Democratic peace: Kant s claim that liberal states are pacific in their international relations was revived in the 80s by Michael Doyle who argues that liberal states have created a separate peace. Kant explained this phenomenon because if the decision was taken by the people and not the prince, then the frequency of conflicts would be greatly reduced. Another explanation is that liberal states tent to be wealth and have less to gain and more to lose by engaging in conflicts than poorer authoritarian states. Empirical evidence shows that war between US and Canada is unthinkable. However, there have also been instances where non liberal states have friendly relations (Cuba and Mexico). This argument has its flaws and the political consequence of this hypothesis bears the question- how should liberal states conduct relations with non liberal states? There is an assumption that with the prevalence of democratic states, war will decline, but there is a danger that some wars will occur as democracies attempt to overthrow non democratic regimes to spread the democratic zone of of peace. Free trade as a core idea of liberalism brought about the idea that there was mutual gains between all player irrespective of the nature of their economies and thus peace will be maintained. But this idea of harmony of interests came into question when the conflict between Britain and Germany, two highly interdependent economies post WWI brought about the end 3 empires. This has shifted liberal thinking towards a recognition that peace is not a natural condition but one which must be constructed Norm entrepreneurs: Constructivists believe that norms are evolved through political process. Norm entrepreneurs play a key role in the first stage of the lifecycle of norms by Finnemore and Sikkink. In the norm emergence stage, norm entrepreneurs attempt to convince a critical mass of states...to embrace new norms. Norm entrepreneurs call attention to issues or even create issues by using language that names, interpret, and dramatizes them. Norm entrepreneurs attempt to establish frames that resonate with broader public understandings and are adopted as new ways of talking about and understanding issues. Norm entrepreneurs need a launching pad to promote their norms and will frequently work from NGOS and with international organizations and states. Once the norm is institutionalized, it has reached the critical threshold or tipping point. The political consequence of this is that norms eventually become internalized by states sue to peer pressure and automatically honored (i.e few people discuss whether women should vote, whether slavery is useful, or whether medical personel should be granted immunity during war). Norms bring about changes. (168) Carl Von Clausewitz: an influential 19 century strategist who argued that the fundamental nature of war is immutable. The novel characteristics of war were not the result of new inventions, but new ideas and social conditions. An example of this is that in an era of unprecendented communications technologies, cyberspace and global media have become crucial battle grounds and terrorist operations for non state actors, so that war is now fought on a number of different planes simultaneously. This shows that the processes of globalization in the international system characterized by on going change is also marked by changes in the forms of warfare being waged in the system. Clausewitz also makes a distinction between the nature and character of war as he refers to nature as the constant, universal waulities that ultimately define war (violence, chance, uncertainty) and character as the impermanent, circumstantial and adaptive features of war depending on time in history. He also distinguishes between the objective and subjective nature of war, the former comprising of the elements common to all wars and the latter consisting of those feature that make each war unique (216) Geneva Conventions: The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns.Conventions made in 1949 that follow the just in bello principle that refers explicitly to civilians and to what is owed to them in terms of harm minimization. These www.notesolution.com
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