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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Haines

Tutorial Readings POL208Y1 How Liberalism Creates Democratic Peace John Owen His theory augments existing explanations of the democratic peace in structural (focusing on liberal institutions like veto points) and normative (focusing on liberal ideologies like domestic norms of compromise projected into foreign affairs) factors. Countries do not fight with each other if they perceive the other to be a democracy and this perception is important. They use Liberal ideology and liberal institutions to bring about democratic peace. Liberal elites broadcast the idea against war with another through free speech and illiberal elites back down out of fear of electoral upheaval. This is a self-regulatory mechanism. He uses four examples. The first is the Franco- American Quasi War (1796-98), Anglo-American relations during the Civil War (1861-63), Anglo-American dispute over Venezuela (1895-96). He uses the Anglo-American War of 1812 as a counterexample. He rebuttals structural realism that states domestic political structures and ideas can fundamentally shape foreign policy. He argues that although this may be true, liberalism is needed to push democracies to be peaceful with each other. The Retreat of the State Susan Strange Strange states that the international political economy is transformed by globalization, in particular technological changes and the liberalization of international trade, production and finance. Al
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