POL208Y1 STUDY GUIDE
Making sense of Globalization Chapter 1: Globalization and Global Politics
Globalization is a long-term historical process that denotes the growing intensity of
However, process is unfair and can cause global friction instability, enmity, and
While it directly affects the power and autonomy of national governments, it has not
lead to the demise of the nation-state or of geopolitics. Sceptics argue that states and
geopolitics remain the principal agents and forces shaping the world order.
Globalization has led to the transformation of world politics into global politics: the
politics of an embryonic global society in which domestic and world politics, even if
conceptually distinct, are practically inseparable.
Globalization has also lead to the change in power as it is no longer according to a
national or territorial logic.
Making Sense of Globalization
Worldwide economic integration has intensified as the expansion of global
commerce, finance, and production binds together the economic forces of nations.
As evident of 2008 global financial crisis, no country is able to insulate itself from
global financial market.
Every day $2 trillion flows across the world foreign exchange market.
Transnational corporations account for up to 33% of world output, 70% of world
trade and 80% of foreign investment; they are key players in the global economy
controlling the location and distribution of economic and technological resources.
New modes and infrastructures of global communication have made it possible to
organize and mobilize like-minded people across the globe in virtual real time.
This has also lead to the spread of ideas, cultures and information across the world.
Global migration and tourism has also lead to such a spread.
Transnational problems have no become evident: climate change, proliferation of
weapons of mass destruction. These problems have led to transnational institutions
and rule-making from G20 summits to Copenhagen Climate Change Conference.
o International organization: IMF International Monetary Fund
o Informal networks of cooperation: Financial Action Task Force
o Dublin Group drug enforcement agencies across the world. Global problems have also resulted in a growing awareness of the multiple ways in
which the security and prosperity of communities in different regions of the world
are bound together.
Stretching of social, political and economic activities across political frontiers.
The growing magnitude of interconnectedness, from economic to ecological.
The accelerating pace of global interactions and process (ideas, news, goods,
information, capital and technology) through the evolution of transport and
The growing intensity, extensity and velocity of global interactions resulting in local
events having global consequences. Growing collective awareness or consciousness
of a shared social world.
Time-space compression literally a shrinking world every local development can
be traced to distant conditions.
Process of deterritorialization: social, political and economic activities are
increasingly stretched across the globe rather than a territory. Territories as a
whole, under the conditions of globalization have less significance as constraints
upon social action and have less power.
The Financial crisis of 2008 The key sites of agencies of decision-making are
literally oceans apart from the local communities whose livelihoods are affected by
their actions. This shows the relative denationalization of power in so far as, in an
increasingly interconnected global system, power is organized and exercised on a
transregional, transnational or transcontinental basis. States no longer have a
monopoly of power resources, whether economic, coercive, or political.
Globalization can thus be defined as: A historical process involving a
fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social
organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power
relations across regions and continents.
Regionalization: Intensification of patters of interconnectedness and integration
among states that have common borders or are geographically proximate
Internationalization: Growing interdependence between states but they remain
discrete national units with clearly demarcated borders.
Skeptics: 9/11 heralded a new epoch in world affairs. Governments sought to seal
their borders to protected against the threat of globalized terrorism. Moreover, in
response to the global financial crisis many governments have become more interventionist protecting key national industries. This has all lead to a decrease in
the intensity of globalization. Globalization was highly exaggerated.
Globalist Persuasion: Very events of 9/11 and financial crisis are indicative of just
how globalized the world has become.
Skeptics fail to look past economic trends. Globalization manifests itself within all
aspects of social life, politics, production, culture, crime, economics, and education.
Globalization for a majority of humanity is associated with a sense of
disempowerment. There is a distinctive geography of inclusion and exclusion. This
leads to clear winners and losers between countries and also its population.
Some argue that globalization has exacerbated existing tensions and conflicts,
generating new divisions and insecurities. This goes hand in hand with the fears of a
new imperialism courtesy of the West.
Associated with a power shift in world politics, propelling China, India, and Brazil to
the rank of major economic powers; as a result, eroding several centuries of
Western, particularly European dominance.
A World Transformed: Globalization and distorted global politics:
The peace treaties of Westphalia established the legal basis of modern statehood.
Formed the normative structure or constitution of the modern world order.
Westphalia brought the agreement by Europes rulers to recognize each others
right to rule over their own territories. In the twentieth century, with the collapse of
global empires, national self-determination came into existence.
o Autonomy: principle of self-determination or self-governance.
o Sovereignty: within its borders, country has supreme and exclusive political
and legal authority.
o Territoriality: humankind is organized principally into exclusive territorial
communities with fixed borders.
From State-centric Geopolitics to Geocentric Global Politics
There is a post-Westphalian world order emerging and distinctive form of global
There is now a global structure and process of rule-making, problem-solving,
maintenance of security and order in the world system. States are embedded in
thickening and overlapping worldwide webs of multilateral institutions and
multilateral politics from NATO and the World Bank to the G20; transnational
associations and networks; global policy networks of officials dealing with global
issues. While a world government remains a fanciful idea, an evolving global governance
complex does exist with states, international institutions, transnational networks
and agencies that regulate human affairs.
Due to globalization, pollution, drugs, human rights, and terrorism are among an
increasing number of transnational policy issues that transcend territorial borders
and existing political jurisdictions. Consequently, they require international
cooperation for their effective resolution.
There is now the disaggregate state in which politics is now entangled in the global
system with less power attributed to the state. Political authorities have diffused
both upwards to supra-state bodies (European Union) and downwards to sub-state
bodies (regional assemblies) and beyond the state to private agencies. Domestic
politics is internationalized and world politics is domesticated.
This system has its flaws in inequality and exclusion:
o Enormous inequalities between states
o Global governance is shaped to favour global capitalism
o Much global decision-making is made excluding many with a legitimate stake
in the outcomes
Realism Chapter 5: Realism
Main scholars of E. H. Carr and Hans J. Morgenthau
Reason of state fundamental principle of international conduct, telling a
statesman what he must do to preserve the health and strength of his state.
The state must pursue power and calculate rationally the most appropriate steps as
to sustain the life of the stain in a hostile and threatening environment.
Realists argue that universal moral principles do not exist and self-interest is more
important than ethical conduct. Advocate for the dual moral standard: one moral
standard for those living within the state and another for those living out of the
state. However, they are not unethical, they argue that it is the state itself that acts a
moral force and creates the poss