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Political Science
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

POL208Lecture 2Lecture 2Two democracies have never gone to war with each otherIn the natural science a single paradigm can be taken as a rule it is dominant In social sciences there are many and they competeTheories and paradigms allow us to explore They are simplifications of reality like mapsTheories and maps are similar because they are simplifications of realityCorrelation vs Causation Golf causes World Peace hypothesis golfing nations never go to war with each other This is just a correlation because it is a coincidence Golf has nothing to do Correlation doesnt necessarily mean causationHypotheses vs Laws basic project of natural science is discover laws that rule the universe Hypotheses are theoretical predictions si y entonces Laws are empirical regularities A hypothesis is just a best guess and it need to be tested and falsifiable Levels of analysis individualgroupstatesocietyinternationalworld system Would the 21st century be different if Adolf Hitler wouldve been killed in WW1 Individual if hitler never existed would fascism and nazism have existed Group KennedyCo and the Cuban Missile Crisis Groups are not veryrationalpeople are better acting alone than in a group The group dynamic isnot very useful to solve issues and emergencies State government structures influence states and impact on IR It refers greatlyto regime types Do authoritarian states behave differently than democracies Allthe things that are unique to the society influence the behaviour of states cultureclimate geography The political culture of the US as a city on a hillmagnanimos superiores nacionalistas impacts on the way that the US actsThey thought theyd be seen as liberators by the vietnamese but the vietnamesesaw them as foes I n t e r n a t i o n a lr e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t a t e sH i s t o r y p l a y s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e conflict brotherhood World system makes the assumption that there is a system that governs theworld all of us are part of the system Throughout most of human historyhumans existed and interacted locally as tribes and diferentes culturas lo quepasaba en asia no importaba en europa ni suramrica We live on a system ofinterconnected states that interact with each other intensively A disruption of thesystem will affect the people the society and the wholeEmergence of a world system 1648 the end of the thirty years war is referred as the westphalian state system as it draws it origins on the Peace of Westphalia Rejection of the authority of the pope countries separated and went their own way by the separation of the church and many states adopted their own which inflicted on them having their own system UK Sweden It broke down to a civil war between the reformers and the catholic church Peace of Westphalia religion of the king religion of the people The king was the ultimate authority within their territory cuius regio eius religio Whatever religion the king carries is the religion that you will followSovereignty defined territory permanent population sovereign from other states free Doug Ascanio Dec 4 11 from foreign interference diplomatically recognized by other states possess the 1108 PMmonopoly on the legitimate use of force coercion and violence within and outside their territories The only way in the westphalian state system WSS to interact is through diplomats YAY The UN has an obligation of nonintervention of nations States in the world system are considered equal and sovereign Their intern issues are their intern issuesThe WSS spread throughout the world Utis posidetis iuris South america eastern and southern asia use the borders defined by europe In africa it was hard to colonize because europeans would die of nasty diseasesEast and south asia were harder to colonize than latin america where there were no diseases and many resources Africa wasnt wealthy enough to explore but was weak enough to conquer This Africa process had new players as Germany Belgium and Italy The boundaries that Europe made are the boundaries we use todayCan we still live with the WSS How would things be differentContested sovereignty when sovereignty is contested we can expect problems From the inside civil wars congo yugoslavia somalia From the outside no recognition kosovo taiwan afghanistan during the taliban Over borders arabisraeliLecture 3Lecture 3The WSS created the framework for statehoodThe process of nationhood coincided with the industrial revolutionColonialism was the main mean by which the WSS spread through the worldMilitary force in latin america is more to maintain domestic order than foreignIn latin america they didnt have revolutions they had rebellionsThey were left with peninsulares governing the countriesSince the 20th Century democracy has been an issue in LatAmIn Africa they didnt have a rise of nationalism the colonial powers just agreed to keep some of the territory for each countryBritain thought that they had to bring civilization to the world but when those civilizations were formed theyd be goneFrance didnt believe in the white supremacy civilization as the british did France wanted to make them feel welcome and part of FrancePortugal never granted independence to its colonies but the fascist government of Portugal collapsed in 1966so the colonies formed resistance movements and almost overnight they fell into civil war because everything happened too fastThe Soviet Union supported many anticolonialism movements maybe because they wanted to piss the western forces In Angola they had their independence in 1976 South Africa and US didnt fight the new rebel government but they funded a guerrilla movement to fight back the marxist govt in Kampala The oil companies gave taxes to the marxist government and they used the money to fight UNITA uniao por la independencia total de angola The cuban government AH OK helped the angolan govt and the western oil companies Weird These new states that used to be colonies didnt think about the monopoly of their forcesThe UN Charter is based on the idea of sovereignty Its sovereignty is protected by intl law It is not a very democratic institution The Security Council is formed by the winners of WWII These five powers have veto rights The General Assembly does consider each state to be equal where Vanuatu has the same weight as PR China Theories in the State SystemRealismIR is an objective field of study where events are governed by international laws Doug Ascanio Dec 4 11 Statemost important actor its rational and unitary 1108 PMThe international system is anarchic States seek to maximize power and security as national interests The distribution of power is imperative for understanding IR States sometimes rely on force or the threat of force to achieve their ends The potential for violence is always present We should focus on what is not on what ought to be Skepticism limited space for progressIt came from the term Realpolitik which says that politics among states have to stick to Doug Ascanio Dec 4 11 the facts instead of thinking about what should be without applying concepts of justice 1109 PMand morality and taking things as is Politics is best practiced when sticking to the facts and the practical rather than wishful thinking about whats right The father of Realism is Thucydideshe wrote the history of the peloponesian wars Thomas Hobbes was one of the first Enlightenment political philosophers He was dominated by the questions of whats a right and just society An ideal society Plato is Doug Ascanio Dec 4 11 controlled by the wisest members of it as the philosophers Theyd distribute tasks in 1109 PM
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