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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL 214 Exam Review. Second Semester Social and Economic setting Canada vales four things • Material Well Being • Equality • Quality of Life • Independence Material Well Being • Canada remains among the richest in terms of purchasing power parties. This affects problems of poverty, due to the fact our situation is better than most(ex) • Unemployment rate in Ontario is much higher due to Outsourcing, the processof moving jobs to locations where they pay less. • This has helped the service economy become dominant compared to the blue collar one. Equality • Canada has image of no poor and no rich(False) • Gap of rich and poorer less than in other industrialized countries, which social security benefits included. • Gap is growing how ever. • Poverty Lines o Poverty Lines are relative o Are research tool for measuring groups of income o Some are better than others • Native Canadians are lowest unemployed, reserve rate only half of average • Only 50% of natives get their money from working, 49% percent below poverty line • Women more likely to be poor, poverty rate is 1/3 highway www.notesolution.com • 40% women head single families fall below poverty line, under 25 poverty rate is close to 70 percent • Socioeconomic Mobility – social stratification is high and tough to move to next bracket. Intergenerational mobility seems to be easier in Canada. o Education was attached to parental education o Fathers income have greater effect on son than daughter, etc. o Affluence of area closely associated with boys incomes, etc. • Immigrants are dramatically falling behind on the economic scale, more so than women or Aboriginals • immigrants with degrees and higher education are immigrating here, but are earning less because there are more people that are educated • Corporate elite control a lot of wealth, reproduce through self recriumtment • Deliberate Discrimination: Predejuce some feel towards other groups. • Systemic discrimination: predejuice with out intent: (women getting custody of kids 90% percent of time. • Choice of employment • Situational politics: ( affirmative action) • The above are reasons of inequality in Canada Quality of life • Canada has less crime and poverty than states • However Natives have bad quality of life • Quality of life depends on Material well being to many • Collection of statistics different than other countries. • Welfare gap: The same of widening ? Independence • Canada for the most part has self governance. • Gained through several constitutional procedures www.notesolution.com • Queen Elizabeth still head of state. • Canadian still dependent of US for economy , not as much recently • We depend of foreign capital like other industrialized nations Political Culture • What does it mean to be Canadian? • Ideology = Set of Informed beliefs about how society should work • Ideologue = Political Junkie (ex Dennis Amoakohene and Neville Britto) • Ideologists that came out of the French Revolution felt that liberalism was the best representation of order and freedom o Wanted to create a science of ideas o Unify society so that it operates harmoniously • A body of ideas that reflects the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group or culture • Ideology expresses the most fundamental ideas about the nature of the individual, society and the relationship between the individual and society o This is liberal because it makes the distinction between individual and society • • Weight people assign to freedom quality national prestige and social order is one aspect of political culture. • Deals with political principles. • Individual Personality another indicator of ideology(Canadians more quiet) • Three positions, Left right and Centre, centre reps mainstream • Right represents individualistic beliefs and vice versa (Left= collectivist belief) • Left Much more likely to given weight to different thing effects on society • Libertarians = individual should be chooser of all things and be allowed largest amount of freedom • Canadians more likely to go for greater good. • Three ideologies = Socialism, Liberalism and Conservative www.notesolution.com Criteria to Classify Parties as Left or Right • Asking experts • MPs values – individualist vs. collectivist • MPs socio-economic status (SES) • Voter Support • Voter Perception • Party Finance – who pays for the party? Corporate sponsors and individuals is it a right wing party or many donations from a number of people is a leftist party • Three ideologies = Socialism, Liberalism and Conservative Classical • Liberalism o Individual freedom is maximized o |Economics are free/competitive o Recognized due to merit o Capitalist economy produces happy society o All just government rest on the consent of the governed o Party system is competitive o Government should be small o Separation between church and state o • Conservatism o Tradition social order o Liked together by rights and obligations o Natural social hierarchy bases of status o Right to govern comes from god o States preserves social order o The state is superior to society o Government is small www.notesolution.com • Socialism o Social equality is maximized o Private ownership is replace by collective ownership o Welfare of greater good maximized through social planning o All just government rests on the consent of the government o The state should control sectors of economy o Redistribution of wealth Contemporary • Liberalism o Individuals freedom is balanced for protection for the disadvantaged o Capitalism to be regulated o This ensures the well being of the majority o Social entitlements are respected o Personal dignity based on social equality o State has to protect disadvantaged o Welfare state ensures social justice o Government should reflect everyone • Conservatism o Individual freedom is most important o Social equality not as important o State regulation should be kept to a minimum o Individuals should be responsible for self o States primary function is to maintain conditions for success o Low taxes www.notesolution.com • Socialism o Social equality o Small amounts of capitalism o State planning needed to ensure fairness o Discrimination eliminated o State should redistribute wealth o Community should have power o Sate should reflect society Generic approaches to studying political culture: • History o Review the rise and fall of political movements, social forces o Impressionistic approach – observe the behavior of a political society and get a sense of the values of Canadian people over a long period of time o Historic landmarks, milestones in the society’s political development o Try to explain why Canadians have the values they do from examination of the past o Humanistic approach • Survey Research o Results depend on how the survey is structured – words used, etc o May reflect or influence certain values • Institutions and Constitutions o Studying federalism, the Charter, the courts and their decisions – contribute to and the molding of political culture o Constitutional documents, their language and discretion and how they lose relevance over time o These are the playing fields where policy is determined – consensual and competing images of Canadian political cultures and our institutions o Cultural theorists argue that culture shapes institutions o Others claim that institutions and constitutions themselves can contribute to a democratic culture • Socialization o Peoples values and ideologies are socialized by the surrounding society – coming of age in a certain political/social climate are formative in social and intellectual experiences o Younger people have a lot less to lose – more flexible in our political sentiments o People are born into family and religion – they are agents of socialization www.notesolution.com o Education systems influence values o Media is a huge agent of socialization o Where one grows up and regionalism influence values Pathways to studying Canadian Political Culture • Ideological Fragmentation o Canada as ideological fragments of older societies – Canada, Quebec, Latin America etc.; are born from European ideologies (conservatism, liberalism and socialism that arose sequentially in history) o i.e. Canada and US are founded on the principles of English classical liberalism o new societies are fragments of previous European ideologies o point of departure from an old society – the full ideological spectrum of the old society does not occur in the new ones o Horawitz – English Canada has some touches of old classical conservatism and this is the reason we have some socialism o Quebec was a conservative society; the Quiet Revolution was liberal and now socialist movements are arising o Canada is a duo-fragment culture; need to have Tory and classical liberal origins to have socialism • Formative Events o Formative event for America was the American Revolution – but also for Canada o The political culture of a country is determined by a formative event o Loyalists come to Canada from the US who separate themselves from the populist mob o BUT the formative event in Quebec was its conquest by the British; Western Canada - the building of the railroad; East – expulsion of the Acadians by the British (formative events are different in different regions) • Economic Structures o Innis – Canadian development in terms of the exploitation of a series of raw resources (fisheries, forestry, agriculture, fuels and minerals) o As these resources are exported, culture is imported from the cultures that are receiving Canadian staples • Survey Research o Measures of individualism – English Canadians more individualist vs. the French collectivist www.notesolution.com Regionalism • Canada has too much geography • Party system, Liberals=Quebec and Conservative=West • Reform party Bloc = Regional Parties • Reform won almost all seats west of Ontario • This is due to three thing o Western Alienation Alberta Feels it does not have a voice in the government Ontario has too much power along with Quebec NEP exploded feelings o Economic Disparities The gap between the rich and poor provinces in Canada goesalong east west lines. Alberta and Ontario basically fuel the country through transfer payments o Intergovernmental conflict Both the provincial and federal governments have been ultra vires Sections 90/91 of constitution at one point. Provinces have less power Has exasperated problems with thing such has the environment and health • Province building becoming big • This is the provinces taking advantage of full constitution powers • This also due to a constitution which gives provinces taxing and other powers • Alberta and Quebec feel the feds do not care about them except for election time. www.notesolution.com • Interstate federalism, where conflict and cooperation are played out between the prov and feds and intrastate where forces are contained within the national states • National structures o The senate favors Ontario and Quebec o The Supreme court favors the the east o Cabinet has been more balanced • Polices o Media bias towards central Canada o Not much economic development out west o Ottawa is sensitive to the people of different regions when awarding contracts. • West= Natural resources Central=Factory work Atlantic Canada= Fishing • Economic policies biased toward Central Canada • Ontario is more likely to
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