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Political Science
C Jung

WEEK 13BY CIARA MCLEANWeek 13Was Democracy Just a MomentRobert D KaplanThe spread of democracylike Christianity in Europe and the Mediterraneanhas failed to make the world more moral and may only have served to make it more complexHistory has shown that every major shift in ideology Christianity the Enlightenment has made way for another and there is no evidence to presume that democracy will be any different Democracy in the west is vulnerable to devolving into authoritarianism and encouraging democracy in poor countries is no better The west has enjoyed such a long period of prosperity and dominance and that may serve as our downfall because we are blinded to possible forces of decline Democracies are ValueNeutral Hitler and Mussolini were both elected democraticallyDemocracies do not make societies more moral what they do is reflect the health and stability of societies through their voting choices oThough Hitler and Mussolini were elected they took advantage of poor economic times and post WWI instability 1985 Sudan overthrew military regime to put in place a democratic system oLead to most brutal tyranny in Sudans postcolonial history oTerrorism and government brutality were rampanto27 percent of the population was literate oHealth and stability of Sudanese society was comparable to Italy and Germany when they elected Mussolini and Hitler respectively First create an economy then worry about elections A middle class and civil institutions are required for successful democracyoDemocratic Russia is lacking in both of these categories remains violent and unstable despite its 99 literacy rateoChina has seen vast improvement in quality of life under an authoritarian system oRussia may be failing in part because of its democratic system and China may be succeeded in part because of its authoritarian system oFor a change in China to a democratic regime there would be turmoil and possibly a partial breakup of the country China has high levels of corruption and lacks a precommunist bourgeois Democracy emerges successfully only as a capstone to other social and economic achievements not a good for its own sakeTocqueville democracy evolved in the west as an organic outgrowth of development Europe aristocracy needed to confer equality to other citizens so that they could take on some of the responsibility oStructured division of the population with competing interests necessary to avoid tyranny and anarchyIn a society that lacks the complexity and sophistication necessary for democracy for a party to divide up the electorate it will have to appeal not to arguments of reason but to established ethnic and regional divisions Comparison between the wests drive to spread democracy and nineteenth century colonialismPostCold War policy initiative has been to spread democracy which was possible in Eastern European countries because they had the historical and social preconditions for democracy oie exposure to Enlightenment literacy low birth rates bourgeois traditionsothis same practice doesnt work in the developing world because many countries lack the necessary preconditions Democracy can weaken struggling or young states as it forces fragile coalition governments and necessitating ineffectual compromises Democracy doesnt form states geography settlement patterns the rise of literate bourgeoisie and ethnic cleansing tooFormed states possessing a bureaucracy taxpaying middle class and states where fundamental issues like borders and powersharing have already been resolved suit democracy bestBecause these fundamental issues are already out of the way politicians can appeal to the public on secondary mattersSocial stability results from establishment of a middle class and authoritarian systems are the best way to create a middle class oJerry Rawlings Ghanaian ruler who stabilized his country as a dictator and then was elected democratically The New AuthoritarianismNotion of historical inevitability societies are determined by their past their civilization and their biology HobbesoEnlightened despotism preferable to democracy because the masses require protection from themselves Isaiah Berlin was a staunch critic of historical inevitability and believed that it was adherence to this belief that lead to Nazism and communism saying they were both extreme attempts to force a direction onto historyHybrid democraticauthoritarian systems in Pakistan Turkey PeruCountries with young populations especially young poor males are subject to political violenceSingaporeoNeoauthoritarian system state is paternalistic and undemocratic oHas become hugely prosperous in a very short time oPer capita wealth is nearly equal to that in Canada South AfricaoDemocratic oHigh murder rateoPrivate security necessaryoDeclining currency exodus of educated peoples 33 unemployment oNeeds a hybrid regime to succeed World GovernmentAuthoritarian and hybrid systems will be treated as legitimate so long as they provide security and economic growthA world government has been emerging organically in the form of international corporations Executive Outcomes a corporate mercenary force based in South Africa was able to restore stability in Sierra Leone in 1995 through peacemaking efforts The Shrinking Domain of Politics Deep social division in Latin America made gated communities necessary then they were exported to the US
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