Midterm #1 Review 24 page review of all articles studied, and major terms defined in the course. Very thorough set of notes, will be extremely useful to anyone taking a course on African Politics.

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Wilson Prichard

POL301Y MID TERM TESTDate December 1 20010Duration 1 hour 45 minutesStart Time 10h15TO 12h00No aids allowedIn your answers I will be looking for evidence that you have considered the core concepts presented in lectures and that you have read and understood the assigned readings for the classYou should aim to engage with relevant theory and analytical tools provide evidence for your assertions and make judicious use of examples and cases The questions will be deliberately broad This is to allow you sufficient flexibility to construct an argument based on what you consider to be the critical issues rather than just regurgitating facts or summarizing arguments from different sourcesThe Term Test will have TWO sectionsSection 1 will be worth 80 of the final grade while section 2 will be worth 20 of the final gradeSECTION 1You will be required to answer TWO essays questions from a choice of FOUR possible questions Below are seven questions which should guide your review of the readings and lectures on the relevant themesissues The final wording of the test questions may vary slightly from the present version This should matter little if you have command of the relevant information1 COLONIAL STATE FORMATION AND RULEWhich of these characterizations capture best the nature of the colonial state and governance in Africai Decentralized despotism MamdaniiiBula Mutari Youngiii Hegemony on the cheap HerbstExplain your choice basing your answer on the key factors that shaped the evolution of the colonial state between the moment of formal colonization through 1940 Pay particular attention to the nature and significance of indirect ruleTHESIS The colonial state evolved by way of elitism centralism and absolutism To be able to secure law and order the colonial state adopted a system of indirect rule whereby local chiefs were transformed into local potentates with absolutist powers similar to those of the colonial governors Following this method of thought and by way of studying the three articles it comes to light that Decentralized Despotism by Mamdani is the most encompassing characterization of the nature of colonial rule in Africa While the other articles provide accurate overviews of the African period of colonization Decentralized Despotism is most thorough in characterizing and explaining the nature of colonialism in AfricaDECENTRALIZED DESPOTISM MAMDANIMain Argument Proposed by Mamdani Throughout colonial Africa majority rural populations were governed through indigenous chiefs and customary law under a regime of decentralized despotism As a result they were ill prepared to participate as citizens in the modern states that have succeeded colonialism The canonical version of such colonialism is the British system of indirect rule formally employed only in tropical Africa it echoed segregationist policies of rural South Because such colonialism was both despotic and decentralized Mamdani argues that it was decentralized despotism CentralismLogic of indirect ruleoIndirect Rule was implemented by the British it focused on decentralized state oLocal authority would rule largely on an autonomous basis There would be a shared goal of achieving economic growth there was no granting of citizenship to Africans in British colonies oBritain said it was a less interventionist approach where we insist on colonization but we will not insist on Africans to assimilate to our culture but this was just a coverupoDecentralize government power to local native authorities granting significant autonomy while enforcing basis requirements for maintenance of order and tax revenues makes it seem like the colonizers are absent but they are merely using another vehicle to enforce their power They framed this approach as respect for existing culture and traditions but largely a practical response to need for social order How were African populations organized before colonial rule and how wasit distorted oLow population so extending power is expensiveoEuropes mentality is to control more land and therefore control more people because high population density create bordersmust continue to have a presence on that land to hold the benefits of that land Africas mentality differs land is worthless in the sense that there is plenty of openland and people can move away Their aim is to control people get crops collect slaves build armies collect taxescan I pose a threat to these people so that they will submit Power organized in concentric circlesThis means states either dont interfere with each
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