Pol301 exams answers (2).pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL301Y1
Professor
Antoinette Handley
Semester
Winter

Description
1 Bula Matari Crawford Youngs Bula Matari thesis is that colonization was a violent and traumatic experience that marked a fundamental shift in the history of the entire African continentIn Congo for example the Belgian colonialists did not bother to respect existing structures and instead went on to impose their own structuresSimilarly nowhere in Africa did the colonialists make so much economic demands on the local people as was the case in Congo first for ivory then for what came to be known as Red Rubber and later for other commodities Therefore in one way or another the newly wrestled hegemony had to be transformed into a selfsustaining resource flow for the colonial state Bula matari was sued to convert labour the sole extractable resource of state subjects into the ways and means of meeting state subsistence needs for example to solve the revenue dilemma People became units of production By an imposing demonstration of extractive capacities Bula Matari rapidly increased the revenue flows among others through the head tax which helped the colonial territories to achieve equilibrium between the requirements of hegemony and revenue Young notes that the basic sustenance for Bula Matari came from what amounted to a levy on African labour In the form of a head taxBula Matari was also deployed in road construction to facilitate state accumulation and to foster developmentThus the availability of African labour was crucial to the accumulation imperative of the colonial state Under the guidance of colonial officers and African chiefs who were the primary agents in the construction of Bula Matari labour Thus under Bula Matari violence colonialism set out not merely to exploit Africa but to transform it It wasa policy of production a1 policy that involved the soil and the people whose goal was to arrive at the greatest expanse of exploitable land and to increase both the number of workers and the kinds of things they could doThat is how the Congo Free State became a semiprivate state and a personal possession of King Leopold 11 of Belgium It was based on the violent exploitation of natural and human resources and employed Bula Matari tactics Overall Young observes that Bula Matari crusher of rocks managed in a short time to assert a powerful hold on subject society and to smash its resistance For example theCongo Free State was able to assert a powerful hold on society resulting into effective occupation for a while Bula Matari lost no opportunity to represent itself as an invincible Leviathan as the sole alternative to the nasty brutish and short existence of the Hobbesian state of nature that its discourse portrayed as the precolonial African condition An argument could be made that Bula Matari is responsible for the lasting legacy of colonialism and the ongoing violence in Congo todayBula Matari seems to have left a more traumatic experience on the Congolese institutions and its people 2 Decentralized despotism indirect rule The central point of Mamdanis argument in decentralized despotism indirect 2rule is thatthroughout colonial Africa majority rural populations were governed through indigenous chiefs and customary law under a regime of decentralized despotism As a result they were ill prepared to participate as citizens in the modern states that have succeeded colonialism The canonical version of such colonialism is the British system of indirect rule formally employed only in tropical Africa but echoed2
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