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Political Science
Rauna Kuokkanen

POL 308 1 Chapter 13 Governmental DeterminantsStudying Individual and Governmental Determinants PMs have a lot of power when it comes to determining policy because of cabinet solidarity and the power of the PM to dismiss cabinet members The Great Conditional Variation o but there is a lot of variation in the salience of the governmental determinants in the making of Canadian foreign policy o importance of the PM varies according to 1 personal predisposition interest experience and expertise in FP and their breadth of convictions about the subject 2 Cabinet colleagues foreign ministers obviously have the most power seen as natural alternative to PM 3 bureaucracythe strength prestige and determination of powerful international affairs ministries 4 size of mandate 5 domestic distractions ie eco problems national unity etc 6 international system crises etcThe Debate o 1 international fate what Canada does it dictated by external determinants PD ie Cold War etco 2 foreign ministry matters foreign minister and dept can have medium salience in making foreign policy LI Pearsoniano 3 all of Ottawa and especially the Prime Minister matters cites Canada going to Gulf in 1990 and not to do so in 2003The Theoretical Life There is a common logic behind all three of these schools of thought smaller powers have to do what the international system pressures them to do Stairs sees them as policy takers therefore governmental determinants have low salience and sensitivity and scope those who try to do something else they get kicked out ie Diefenbaker and his foreign minister in 1963 whereas principal powers are policy makers can do what they want high governmental determinantsThe Thesis of Growing and Governmental and Prime Ministerial Salience o Since 1945 governmental determinants have become more salient centered on the PM o 1 importance of the beliefs of the PM in making foreign policy o 2 increasing prime ministerial involvement started with Diefenbaker o 3 international ignorance PMs have less and less experience going into office o 4 deinternationalization of prime ministerial visionfocus more on Canadian values less on global onesPrime Ministers Individual Foreign Policy Belief SystemsPearsons Internationalism Methodist Anglophone bias biases liberal optimist didnt see the systemic changes happening post WWII focussed on the Atlantic community francophones not seen as important Trudeaus Globalist AntiNationalism Trudeau had a strong academic background philosophically based thinking very antinukes sympathetic to the developing world no insecurities about the states because of the Frenchness antinationalist federalist Mulroneys Emergent Globalism Mulroney had little experience outside Canada rural background working classmediatory lawyer in business world believed in Ronald Thatcherism continentalist supported underdogs as has been one progressive Quebecker anticommunist believed in Diefenbakers governments great triumphs supported taking action against Apartheid South Africa big on mediationChretiens AntiAmerican Assimilation Big on national unity US as big threat bc was big assimilator wanted to therefore make Can very different from the US left wing liberalism believed Canada was the best country in the world CANADA AS NUMBER ONE importance of exports to Canadian eco pro economic globalization proaction not philosophy belief in personal contactMartins Foreign Policy Belief System Globalized nationalist committed to good global governance in a sttransforming 21century world studied philosophy went to Africa for a year attached to his fathers legacy pushed for L20business background minister of finance for 9 years globalization was happening so he realizedPOL 308 2 it was important wanted to keep a fiscal surplus believed in competitive globalizing free trade had his own theory about globalization read the latest books on foreign policy therefore made open choices Harpers Foreign Policy Belief System Little interest or experience with FP but comfortable leading Reformer shaped the Conservative Party to a large degree wanted a unified platform Bono converted Harper to be proAfrican development relied on Mulroney and his former ministers for adviceOttawas Collective Ideologies Foreign ministers and Cabinet colleagues senior civil service all importantThe Ottawa Men Male mostly Anglophone upper middle class lifetime careers in federal public service sustained Pearsonian world view after 1945 The Tendency Triumvirate Within this group there were differences conservatives anticommunist dominated until 1965 liberal moderates led by Pearson and John Holmes dominated form 195054 left liberals small never on topChanging Elite Attitudes in the 1970sit was discovered that departments dominated DEA was different had diff beliefs from other departments DEA had become CNR DEA was mediating btw other departments FrenchEnglish was the biggest dividerMulroneys Border Boy Patronage Many patronage appointments were made to the diplomatic network by Mulroney appointment a lot from the foreign service bureaucracy picked those with lots of experience The Classic Collective ConfigurationsThe Three Classic Configurations o PMs have a lot of freedom in picking staff and organizing govt three models of how this has happened since 1945 o 1 LI system dominated by the foreign minister and foreign office allowed by the PM to take the lead leads to focus on diplomacy negotiation compromise and international law o 2 PD defence finance and trade and agriculture depts dominate foreign policy each dept has a lot of say lets foreign governments have more influence o 3 CNR PM takes the lead its his beliefs that matterSt Laurent Gave Foreign Minister Pearson the leadDiefenbaker his FP was dominated by other deptsPearson tried to give Paul Martin Sr Freedom but couldnt help himself from getting involved Quebec issues and minority governments meant other ministers had a roleTrudeau wanted PM to dominate made strong central agencies PMO PCO rotated his ministers got rid of DEAs Pearson officials took strong leading roleMulroney eventually took a role as USCan relations interested himChrtien even more PM domination had had international portfolios before intervened in NATO 1993 APEC G78 Turbot War pushed for reform of international institutions direct dial diplomacy called world leaders frequently had no personal FP advisors 1996 Axworthy replaced Ouellet he had strong convictions about human rights social responsibility Axworthy held informal meetings to decide policy he had to try to unite the Department of Foreign Affairs and the PM very difficult Manley appointed 2000 lead to FP based more on economics and business and closer US relations his influence rose post 911Martin had a developed and ambitious FP belief system created very PM centered system appointed people he trusted started with a lot of Chretiens people replaced Bill Graham with Pierre Pettigrew in 2004 created system of Cabinet committees very much like Trudeau divided DFAIT into two groups made them less influential Pettigrew slow to react when Asian Tsunami hit Martins first decision was a long needed foreign policy review it was completely under government and PMs control finished in 2005 interdepartmental approach shows he wanted to control all of Cdn foreign policy wanted to set idea of good governancesecond key decision was response to Asian tsunamiimposed by external forces 150 Cdn missing therefore big deal initially Graham decided the response lead to a limited policy driven by military which landed with supplies
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