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Political Science
Inder Marwah

Lecture# 8 Pol 320Y1 Monday June 6th 2011 **Reason is the source of all evils Immanuel Kant freedom is the being of our rationale capacity Born in Prussia, died in 1804 three important texts, The Critique of Pure Reason (What Can I know), Critique of Practical Reason (What Should I do?), Critique of Pure Judgement ( What May I hope?) Theory of Knowledge, Basic of Ethics The Groundwork examines laws and principles we give ourselves How Can we be morally free? What Would it Mean as Individuals to Give Ourselves our own Laws? Immanuel Kants questions. What Kant is trying to figure out is if there are fundamental moral principles that govern all human beings. Only rationale beings can choose to govern ourselves in a certain way All types of animals participate in nature (e.g. eating everyday), but human beings are also rationale beings and we have the capacity to exercise our agency to the world, that are not conditioned by the world. Animals can never be rational because there actions are governed by instinct and nature, or causual chains. Humans can create their own causality, so we can act in ways that are not conditioned by the world We are not naturally bound to fulfill ourselves in the state of nature, because of our reason and will, the true vocation of reaason is to choose the will that is good if our natural end is not to be happy it must be to be good, or moral beings because it is in our nature. Rationale capacity to have morally good will, we may perform good acts but it may be motivated by bad. My will happaened to produce something of good actions. Good will is fundamentally determined on the groundwork of our incentives, based on internal motivatations and not the external outcomes of our actions. To be moral I have to act on certain principles, which creates moral duties to be moral I have to act on certain types of principles. What are the Right Principles? Could the Will be based on the Act of Benevolence? Sympathy? we cant base the moral good based on benevolence and sympathy it is counter-intuitive, because our pleasures are fical, volatile and consistently changing. www.notesolution.com
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