POL320 Final Exam Study Notes

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Political Science
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Simone Chambers

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POL320 – Final Exam – Semester 2 Summary Notes 19th Century I. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) II. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) III. Karl Marx (1818-1883) IV. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Themes  Turning inward  Modernity  The ideological wars of modernity  Post-modernism  Enlightenment: self-consciousness = world dominated by darkness, lack of light – optimism, progress, pushing forward, applying reason  19 C: turning inward, rise of rationalism, new identity, modernity, reflection, drawbacks, issues o Mill – Hegel – Marx o Nietzsche ~ beginning of post-modernism, radically critical of modern world Liberalis: Pertaining to Free People 1. Liberal education – necessary for free people (not vocational/useful) – expand horizons, better citizen 2. Liberality – virtue of generosity, give freely, concrete & abstract meaning (money, time, attitude) 3. Liberalism – political/ideological – free society Ancient vs. Modern Liberty 1. Collective/political vs. individual/private – free from tyranny; democracy (self-rule/determination); express itself in political power, join people w/ politics vs. individual, vs. gov’t, over/against political power 2. Contingent/historical vs. pre-political/abstract (modern freedom = essentially free) - Mill = individual, Hegel = wants to reconcile ancient collective community w/ modern individualism, Marx = debatable Historical Roots of Modern Liberalism 1. Against religious conformity a) Freedom of thought & conscience b) Individual rights & freedoms 2. Against absolutism a) Freedom from arbitrary incursion from the state b) Rule of law & constitutionalism 3. Against ascribed status a) Economic freedom b) Capitalism  Reformation – religious dissent, Luther breaks, priesthood of all believers, bible translated into vernacular, expands people’s immediate access to religion o Wars of religion – toleration as second best  Absolutism – push for freedom against arbitrary incursion from state, demand for rule of law o Economic interests, new forces, achieve status through work – push of capitalism, commerce  Neoliberalism – against religious conformity, broader notions of individual freedom 19th Century Liberalism  Spirit of reform  Rise of welfare liberalism  Equality as a necessary condition of liberty - General welfare of society, overall utilitarian assessment, also look @ education, working conditions – as augmentation of freedom for welfare, society Philosophical, Political, Ideological Liberalism 1. Philosophical (or moral) liberalism: natural right liberals, Kantians, utilitarians, Hayekians, etc. 2. Political liberalism: civil and political rights for the individual, rule of law, constitutionalism, popular sovereignty. Are we all becoming liberals? End of history thesis. 3. Liberalism as ideology: social welfare liberals, classical liberals, conservatives. John Stuart Mill Pure rationality = not enough (tension b/n rationalist utilitarian & person moved by sentiment) Utilitarianism 1. Consequentialist principle: the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the goodness or badness of the results that flow from it. 2. Hedonist principle: the only thing that is good in itself is pleasure and the only thing that is bad in itself is pain. 3. Egalitarian/individualist principle: each shall count as one. 4. Aggregative principle: seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number. - intuitive, self-evident; cost-benefit analysis; moral theory: hard to escape fact that doesn’t start w/ Kantian principle that ppl can’t be used purely as means Mill's Misgivings With Utilitarianism  Individual is subordinate to group: tyranny of the majority's happiness  Omitted aesthetic dimension of life: coherence and harmony of a life, passion for honour, pursuit of noble actions, etc. - individual vs. collective; omitted the value of noble life, aesthetic greatness, poetry; higher/lower pleasures Utilitarianism with a Twist  Perfectionism  Quantity vs. quality of pleasure  Higher and lower pleasure  "it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"  Elitists or egalitarian? Liberty in General 1. The new tyranny: the majority 2. Two instruments of tyranny: laws & opinion 3. Definition of liberty: pursuing our own good in our own way 4. Justification of liberty: utility not natural right 5. Limits to liberty: a) Harm b) Other regarding action 6. Spheres of liberty: conscience, lifestyle, association 7. States in their nonage? - dangers inherent in democracy itself (e.g. tyranny of majority) – will always be a minority – limit tyranny, expand liberty of individual – develop institutions to maintain/max freedom of each - defend freedom on grounds of utility (instrumental value) & greatest # of happiness (progressive being, perfectionists); progress @ individual & societal level = objectively good for Mill - no right = absolute; society’s obligation to create minimum of respect/dignity for all - states in nonage – utilitarian argument – ‘civilized communities’ (developmental view of civilizations) - progress (paternalistic, culturally imperialist) – benign/moral obligation to raise up others Freedom of Thought & Discussion  It is never right to suppress an opinion (even when that opinion is a minority of one) 1. The minority opinion may be true. 2. Even if the minority opinion is false. 3. Most opinions are partially true and partially false.  Marketplace of ideas - Aware of fallibility; chilling effect argument; inquisitive/progressive society/lead to truth; warming effect (dissent & innovation); challenge & defend (otherwise dead dogma) - Marketplace of ideas, open discourse & deliberation = catalysts for progress Individuality 1) Kant vs. Mill: individual vs. individualism 2) Individualism as cultural ideal G.W.F. Hegel Dialectical. Reconcile oppositions. - Individual & the world; rational agent @ home in the world; overcome dichotomies (e.g. mind & body); free will/choice & laws/norms/conventions; minorities vs. majorities - How history can be read as project that reconciles opposites The Big Picture  Diachronic accounts of reconciliation: philosophy of history; phenomenology of mind  Synchronic accounts of reconcilitation: ` in thought: Philosophy of Logic; ` in social & political life of humans: Philosophy of Right Geist – mind/spirit – human consciousness - Reconstructs all logics humans use; principle of conflict, all thought generated through struggle of reconciliation of opposites The Ubiquitous Pattern  Affirmation - negation - AUFHEBUNG!  Being  Nothing  Becoming  Duality overcome but not abolished in higher stage - Determinate negation (e.g. empty  being) The Story Line  Latent - overt  Immediate - mediated  Undifferentiated - differentiated  Implicit - fully articulated  Unity - plurality  Lower – higher - e.g. acorn – whole oak = latent, contained within it - @ end of story, can go back & really understand beginning History  Three types of history: original, reflective, philosophical - Hegel = philosophical history; philosopher = interested in reason & truth, larger pattern - History = just humans, mind & matter, acting in the world Hegelian Interlude  The an sich & für sich  Freedom in-itself and for-itself  Self-consciousness in Hegel  Three stages: ` an sich: freedom as potential or essence ` für sich: freedom as fully developed actuality * always 3 elements in all human interactions/existence: you, world outside you, another person - essentially social animals; history of humanity = struggle for ^ to come together - an sich & für sich: freedom as grasped in thought in its totality, i.e. essence & actuality The End of History  Geist coming to know itself (self-consciousness, recognition) as free  The Phenomenology of Spirit  The Philosophy of Right - Human beings in some central sense free, but only potentiality: has to grow, unfold, in all its aspects (through history) so we can grasp in its fullness - Philosophical history will have to come to end b/c human freedom will have been fully laid out & grasped in thought [completely/in all detail] Master Slave Dialectic  Phenomenology  Story not an argument  Parable? Allegory? - Beginning of struggle; ideas of consciousness before history, interacting w/ nature; self-preservation - Self-consciousness as seen on a continuum; identity; ego/alter-ego Levels upon Levels...  Psychological  Social  Political  Historical  Human nature - Slave turns out free, master not The Scene is Set (13-20)  Self-consciousness  Recognition  Independence/dependence (freedom/unfreedom) - Desire of humans to be independent/drive to be free; social beings: ability to think of selves as independent = dependent on others recognizing us {independence = dependent} – essential need for recognition as social tie Affirmation (21-24)  Primordial need for recognition  Who am I? I am not you.  To affirm my existence I seek to destroy you - Animals can’t recognize us; first struggle = unto death; fully destroying other = self-defeating Negation (24-31)  One give sin/the other spares life  Master/Slave  Object for other: ` I am a slave - this is how the master sees me ` I am a master - this is how the slave sees me  Subjective/objective split - Move from subjective to objective, determined by gaze of other; self-consciousness goes outside self Master (25-28)  Affirm myself in subjugating/objectifying slave  Fails - turns into its opposite: slavery  Inward to dependence  Outward to unproductive consumption  Domination is self-defeating - 3 things @ work: master, slave, world of things - Way we shape the world: our sense of self; create world in our image comes back to us in self- consciousness - Domination = self-defeating Slave (28-31)  Negate myself through objectification of master  Dominated by fear & labour  Turns into its opposite: freedom  Inward to universality  Outward to creativity  The meek shall inherit the earth. - Turns inward, seeks happiness/worth internally - Escaping inside to universality, all humans same (Christianity); radical stoicism (completely free bec could care less about physical life) – slave becomes radically free in detaching selves mentally, spiritually from outside world The Moral of the Story  Self-conscious freedom: we are free but we are not born free. Achieve freedom in struggle.  Psychological - social basis of happiness  Social - the gaze of the other  Political - freedom of citizens  History - slavery necessary?  Human nature - identity & difference - Equal society – recognize worth of groups, value identity; detach selves from particularity; human nature: universality inside of us, recognizing also our differences Preface  'What is rational is actual; what is actual is rational'  Philosophy 'is its own time comprehended in thoughts'  The Owl of Minerva flies at dusk  Absolute/Idea/Concept - Ideas don’t represent reality; ideas & thoughts in some sense more real than reality (essences of things) – e.g. essence of wax can be rasped only in thought, but can exist in actuality - True thought = thought of it connected to actual existence of it - Philosopher goes to history, tries to find reason/rhyme underneath - @ heart of reality, there’s actuality - Philosophy = thought of the world, articulated in abstract thought - Hegel believes writing @ end of an era; history has logic, unfolds - Ethical life of community: Family, civil society, state - Subjective interactional space; ethical life = full picture of community: subjective, objective, universal (3) - Objective: made concrete by subjectivity in concrete form - Subjective: life lived from POV of individual - Laws only legit to extent that freely chosen by subject - Ppl see selves as free/self-determining, but ideal sitch: turns out laws inherited = ones they would’ve chosen anyway The Family - ‘love is a contradiction’ – selfish desire fulfilled by becoming selfless - Role/function = education of citizens; an essential socialization Civil Society  Concept in general  System of needs  Administration of justice  Police & corporation ` go from family to Civil Society - exact opposite - Sphere b/n intimate space of family & political space as gov’t - Collective/social goods - Family = 1 ethical root of state; corporation = second The State 1. Constitutional State  Sovereign  Executive  Legislative 2. International Law
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