POL320 sept 25th.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Simone Chambers

Tutorial # 1. September 25, 2013 Modernity- -Who were the thinkers in POL200, and why they thought so. -Thinkers like Plato (who thought of the tri-partied soul… divided into three parts) The logical, the spirited, and the appetitive. (Philosopher kings, Guardians, artisans.) Aristotle based his view on biological order. Social political order is based on this. Women and slaves have lesser roles. IT is a form of natural superiority to some. It is not socially constructed, it is naturally constructed. If we take these thinkers and contrast them with the modern… We see that the modern thinkers believe in progress… the idea that things are getting better (especially because of actions of humans). So things are changing, and most believe for the better. They all take progress very seriously. Modernity is something to be wrestled with, not something that can be ignored. The individual is considered important because we are all capable of enlightenment. Instead of the natural order, When Kant is talking about the enlightenment he is talking about a very important part of human history, in which humans are becoming aware of their own importance and their ability to go inside one’s self and think for themselves (opposed to “minority” or immaturity). Minority is the “paternal” sort of living, when you look to someone else to decide how you will think and live. They believe that the truth that is being expressed by their “betters” does not need to be questioned. “Sapere Aude”- dare to know. People used to be accustomed to following customs (rules), whether religious or from leaders/wise men. People did not think for themselves or question. Enlightenment is the rise from this immaturity. Kant said that this immaturity was also self-imposed b
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