STUDY questions for final 11-12.doc

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Political Science
Joseph H.Carens

STUDY QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM FOR POL 320 toThe exam will be held on THURSDAY APRIL 12 from 900 AM1200 PM in BN 3 BN 3 is in the CLARA BENSON BUILDING at Huron and Harbord Enter from Huron1According to Rousseaus Second Discourse is the development of morality and civilisation beneficial or harmful to humanity Why What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of civilised society as compared with the condition of savagesIts harmful to humanitycreates inequality and makes man a selfish personneedy and wanting pleasure instead of just doing what he needs to survive and using basic instinctsIn Rousseaus state of nature savage man was like an animal that satisfied its immediate needsdrank at the nearest stream satisfying his hunger sleeping under the same tree that he ate from etc Disadvantage illnessbecause of the way that man in a civilized society acts excessive idleness excessive labour overly refined foods for the wealthy that give them indigestion the bad food of the poor who most of the time dont have any at all staying up all hours excess of all kinds immoderate outbursts of every passion fatigue and mental exhaustionIlls are our own making we could have avoided most of them by sticking to the life given to us by naturestate of nature savage manSavage man only knows wounds and old agethe history of illnesses follows the history of civil societiesMan looses half of their advantages by becoming domesticated as animals domaking an animal a house pet for exampleIn becoming habituated to the ways of society man becomes weak fearful and servile characteristics savage man did not haveThe first man who gave himself clothing or a dwelling was giving himself things that were unnecessary since he had done without until nowSelfpreservation was savage mans whole concernMan is able to contribute as a free agent to his own operationsSavage man was deprived of every sort of enlightenment only feels certain passionshis desired do not go beyond his physical needs the only goods he knows are nourishment a woman and rest only evil he fears are pain and hungerHe says pain and not death because an animal will never know what it is to diethe knowledge of death and its terrors is one of the first acquisitions man has made in withdrawing from the animal conditionDisadvantage Savage man only wanted and needed the most basic things in life for his selfpreservation like food water and sleep A civilized man has grown to desire unnecessary things like a bed and clothing and this has aided the emergence of inequality in man The further away from the state of nature and savage man they get the more self centred and run by vices they become It ruined the way nature intended man to liveSavage man was a free beast whos heart was at peace and body in good healthOut of civil and natural life civil life will become unbearable and insufferablethere is no misery for savage man but there is misery for civil mansavage man would never have a reason to kill himself as so many civil men have donethere main goal was selfpreservationIn instinct alone savage man had everything he needed to live in the state of natureSavages are not evil precisely because they dont know what it means to be goodSavage man has natural pity Nature gave man the softest heartsCivil man is able to witness or hear a tragedy at the hands of another or a death etc and block it out and internally argue with himself to justify not helpingsavage man doesnt have this talent for lack of wisdom and reason he is always seen thoughtlessly giving into the first sentiment of humanitypity is a natural sentimentPity carries us without reflection to those we see sufferingIn the state of nature pity is what takes the place or laws mores and virtue with the advantage that no one is tempted to disobey itThe human race would have disappeared lone ago if its preservation was solely dependant on reasoning of its membersIn natural society men all nourish themselves with the same food live in the same manner and do exactly the same thingsthere is much less differences between men in this state than in societyNatural inequality age gender strength looks etc must increase in the human species through inequality occasioned by social institutionsEven in the state of nature natural inequalities didnt matter because people were not living together or communicating in any way there was no love so beauty was no advantage to anyone being smart made no difference when there was no one to compare it tosavage man didnt know what servitude or domination was so how could they really oppress anyone or exploit anyone without knowing what that entails or meansSlavery and dominance came from men need for one another that was not found in the state of natureeach person was free and the law of the strongest was pointless hereInequality is hardly observable in the state of nature its origins come from the emergence of civilization and societyWith property came the beginning of civil societyWhen people began to live together they started to take note of others look at them and watch them notice differences and similarities they looked at others values statuses and meritbeginnings of inequalityOverall for Rousseau morality and civilization was harmful to human beings because it took them so far away from the original state of nature a state that he believed was their natural way of living and was much better for them than civilization With the emergence of society came inequality that was not seen in the state of nature man became desires of unnecessary things subjected themselves to an excess of everything that hurt their own health and lost their natural sentiment of pity that made them give into their humanity and help others while in a society they have reason and are able to have internal arguments to justify not helping others Civilization changed humanity for the worse and the advantages of living in this original state of nature outrank living in modern society for Rousseau2Compare what Rousseau says about political authority and the social contract in the Second Discourse with what he says in the Social Contract What are the similarities and differences between the two Are the two accounts compatible Why or why notDiscourse People give themselves leaders in order to defend their liberty and not to enslave themselvesHe prefers the most stormy liberty to tranquil subjectionBy the law of nature the father is master of the child as long as his help is necessary for him beyond this point they become equals and the some completely independent of the father then owes him respect and not obedience gratitude is a duty that must be rendered but not a right that can be demandedGovernments did not begin with arbitrary power which is but their corruption and extreme limit and which finally brings them back simply to the law of the strongest for which they were originally supposed to be the remedy for but also even if they had begun thus this power being illegitimate by nature could not have served as the foundation for the rights of society
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