POL326Y Exam .docx

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Political Science
Arnd Jurgensen

POL326Y Exam Study Sheet Key Terms • Free-Market Ethos o An economic culture based on classical liberal economic paradigm o Acommon direction for US foreign economic policy since WWII o Puts faith in the power of the private market to promote growth and prosperity with minimal governmental intervention o Provides the common understanding that “free trade” is the proper path to economic development • Group Think o Psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people o Creates a desire for harmony or conformity o Contributes to decision making outcome o Examples in US foreign policy- War in Vietnam, Watergate Scandal, view on issues post 9/11 o It is easier for everyone to agree and make a decision than for some to object and have nothing accomplished • Military-Industrial Complex o Aconcept commonly used to refer to policy and monetary relationships between the legislatures in the government and the military o These relationships encompass political contributions, political approval for military spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies o Flow of money and ideas from government to military to corporations in a triangular pattern • Military-Industrial-Scientific Infrastructure o Military requires technology for the establishment of weapons, machinery, etc. o This provides jobs to researchers, engineers, etc. o Military infrastructure remains a huge industry in the US o Universities, Colleges, etc. receive grants to do research and development for military equipment and weapons o Shows how military contributes both economically and developmentally to small communities throughout the US  Ties in with Military-Industrial Complex (Senators, etc. will want these programs to develop to benefit their constituents, etc.) o Allows for the US military to have substantially modern developed materials for warfare • Cuban Pacification o Major US military operation from 1906-1909 o Goal of the operation was to prevent fighting between Cubans after the fall of Palma’s regime o Roosevelt sought to keep the North American economy stable and to establish a means of free elections in Cuba o This could be an example of both American solipsism, a way of keeping the US economy stable, and a way of the US to attempt to establish a democracy in Cuba to avoid future conflicts • Directorate of Operations o National Clandestine Service o One of the CIA’s main components (1973-2005) o The DO was the branch of the CIA responsible for conducting covert operations and recruiting foreign agents o Consisted of many groups, such as counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, etc. o DO was a key component of the CIA and influenced many operations nation-wide (thus contributing to the US’s Foreign Policy) • NATO Expansion o Process of including new member states into NATO o NATO is an alliance of states who seek to provide a system of collective defense o Countries must reach requirements of NATO to be able to join o NATO formed during the onset of the cold war as a peace-promoting establishment that was against communism o US used NATO and expansion as a way to encourage non-communist nations to join the side of the US so that the US could maintain the equilibrium of power with the Soviet Union • School of theAmericas o Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation o Developed by the US department of defense to provide military training to Latin American Countries  Sought to teach specifically anti-communist counterinsurgency training as a means of establishing the basis for Latin American countries to not be influenced by communism o Columbia had the largest # of students enrolled o Also had ties to fighting the War on Drugs  Post cold-war o The School of theAmerica’s is a great example ofAmerican solipsism and the spreading of theAmerican way for the greater benefit ofAmerica  Also an example of a way the US influenced developing nations to prevent them from being overpowered by communist nations • Plan Columbia o Legislation geared towards preventing drug smuggling and communist insurgency within Columbia o 1998- Bill Clinton wanted to secure the US borders from the importation of illegal substances (narcotics) o The plan sought to create counternarcotic programs, sustainable economic development that didn’t involve drugs, the protection of human rights within Columbia, humanitarian aid, stimulation of the economy through private investments, etc. o The US established Plan Columbia for one reason- to protect the US from the importation of drugs which was seen as a treat to the national security of the US due to it’s implications of an increased level of crime, etc. within the country • Suez Crisis (1956) o Attack, following Egypt’s President Nasser’s decision to nationalize the Suez Canal o Aims of the attack to regain western control of the canal and to remove Nasser from power o The crisis threated Western access of middle eastern oil o Pressure from the US and others forced Nasser’s government to withdraw o Suez Crisis was also the last example of US taking action against Israel o Suez Crisis spread the cold war to Egypt and Northern Africa o • Organization ofAmerican States o Acontinental organization established in 1948 to promote regional solidarity and cooperation among member states o Amulti-lateral organization that wanted to promote peace of theAmerican continent, promote the establishment of democracy, prevent disputes among member states, to eradicate extreme poverty, defend human rights etc. o During the cold war it had heavy focus on the establishment of stronger democracies across the continent to prevent the spread of communist ideas o Allowed for free trade, fought against the drug trade o Acoalition/cooperation of N/S American nations • EspionageAct o 1917 o Prohibited any attempt to assist enemies of the US during wartime o Most recent example: Edward Snowden scandal o Prohibited the spreading of information that could threaten national security o Pentagon papers- Vietnam o Schenck vs. US and the Red Scare o Allows for proper punishment for those who aid enemies and threaten the national security of the US • Council on Foreign Relations o AUS nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization o Athink tank specializing in US foreign policy and international affairs o Founded in 1921 o An establishment for the discussion of War and Peace o From 1939-1944 had great prominence with the State Department o Establishes foreign policy initiatives to be brought before the legislative government • Weinberger-Powell Doctrine o Argues that future uses of the US military would need to meet 6 basic criteria • Any military involvement needed to be in a region within vital interest to the US o Would need to be declared conflict (the support of US government) • Supported by congress • Have clearly defined political and military objectives • Relationship between the forces committed objectives would have to be continuously re-evaluated. • Support of public/congress needs to be ensured before the full commitment of the forces • Military intervention would need to be the last resort o Produced under George HW Bush government • Did Iraq andAfghanistan fulfill these requirements? Probably not • FISA o Foreign Intelligence SurveillanceAct (1978) o Established procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information between foreign powers o (Law does not apply outside of US) o Signed into law by President Carter o Allows for surveillance, without court order, within the US for up to 1 year o Allows for wire tapping programs, etc. o Establishes a means for US to intervene in the private lives of it’s citizens to allow for increased national security against terrorist threats, etc. • Stove-Piping o Metaphor to describe ways in which raw intelligence information may be presented without proper context o The lack of context could be due to: specialized nature, security requirements, etc. o Stove-piping is also used as a way of enticing government groups to give funding to particular intelligence agencies on the basis of limited information  Directly influences decision makers, bypassing many established procedures for review of intelligence information o Some may argue that stove-piping led to the passing along of unclear information to government officials prior to 9/11 in regards to possible attacks/threats the US faced • Marshall Plan o AUS program that was established to aid Europe post WWII o Established to prevent the spread of communism from Soviet Union o Goals were to rebuild war devastated region  Remove trade barriers  Modernize industries  Allow for economic growth to make Europe prosperous again o US believed that a weak economic and developed Europe post WWII would be easily influenced by communism therefore affect the national security of the US  Thus in the best interest of the US to establish a plan to intervene and help Europe prosper • McCarthyism o The practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion or treason (without proper evidence) o Used during the US during the second red scare  1950-1956 o McCarthyism is characterized by high levels of fear in regards to possible communist influence on American institutions as well as espionage by Soviet agents. o During McCarthy Era thousands of US citizens were accused of being communist  Many “suspicious” US government officials, etc. o McCarthyism was a widespread social and cultural phenomena that affected all levels ofAmerican society o Was a source of conflict and debate within continental US o Shows how deep the fear of communism affected the greater society ofAmerica • Posse Comitatus Act 1787 o Passed June 1878 (at the end of the reconstruction period) o Sought to limit the powers of the Federal Government to use federal military personnel to enforce state laws o Does not apply to the national guard/US coast guard o The military can not be used domestically to maintain order o Establishes the US military as a bureaucracy for the mere purpose of National Security and Defense  Ameans of foreign policy, not domestic policy (but under domestic command and rule) • Good Neighbor Policy o Came into effect under FDR o Policy towards nations of Latin America o Established that the US would not intervene or interfere with the domestic affairs of LatinAmerican nations o Established that the US would engage in positive exchanges with LatinAmerican nations o “No country has the right to intervene in the domestic affairs of another”  Previous military interventions were seen as unethical • Also caused hostilities towards the US from Latin American countries o The era of Good Neighbor Policy ended with the end of the Cold War in 1945 • Preemptive War o Awar that is commenced in an attempt to repeal or defeat a perceived invasion o Could also occur to obtain a strategic advantage before an attack materializes o Awar that “breaks the peace” o Example: US against Iraq and Saddam Hussein  George HW Bush started a preemptive war with Iraq to intervene/prevent Saddam Hussein from deploying weapons of mass destruction  US decision makers justified the War in Iraq through preemptive means • As well as a possible retaliation to 9/11 o Obama administration makes no claims that the US had the right to begin a preemptive war with Iraq, however still continued to follow through with many policies of Bush Doctrine • Gun-Boat Diplomacy o Refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives through displaying military superiority and power o Implies a direct threat of warfare • Many examples throughout history of US where the US used gun-boat diplomacy to heavily influence policy in other areas of the world • Example of peace through strength • also acts as a good deterrence of threat Past Essay Questions: o Elements within the US foreign policy establishment have been supportive of the establishment of multilateral institutions as a means of managing foreign relations without endangering domestic democratic institutions. Others have seen these institutions as unreliable and as a threat to US sovereignty. Discuss with respect to the UN and the ICC. o The conventional wisdom regarding the impact of elections of US foreign policy is that they have none.According to this view “politics stops at the waters edge” and thus foreign policy is bi-partisan. Do you agree with this view? Discuss citing specific examples. o US foreign policy is often seen as “exceptional”, implying that it is motivated by principals and morality rather than the economic and security interests that determine the foreign policies of other states. Using the examples of at least two regions covered in the course (Latin America, Middle East,Asian, USSR successor states, Europe,Africa), discuss the extent to which this “Exceptionalism” is evident in US foreign policy post WWII era. o Although in the field of international relations it is generally assumed that states are rational in their pursuit of power, a close examination of the making of US foreign policy reveals a different picture. Discuss the different processes by which foreign policy decisions are made. Provide specific examples to illustrate your answer. POL326Y Lecture June 3/2013 US Military • Changing roles of the military • After math of cold war o The Weinberger/Powell Doctrine  Argues that future uses of the US military would need to meet 6 basic criteria • Any military involvement needed to be in a region within vital interest to the US o Would need to be declared conflict (the support of US government) • Supported by congress • Have clearly defined political and military objectives • Relationship between the forces committed objectives would have to be continuously re-evaluated. • Support of public/congress needs to be ensured before the full commitment of the forces • Military intervention would need to be the last resort  Produced under George HW Bush government • Did Iraq and Afghanistan fulfill these requirements? Probably not o US intervention in Libya  Also did not meet these criteria  Rested on US resolution to protect civilians o Since invasions ofAfghanistan and Pakistan a large part of those operations has been outsourced  Outsourcing is not new to the US military  Outsourcing of combat activity • The US has hired private contractors (Blackwater, etc.) • They hire elite forces that have withdrawn from the US military o Also recruited in other places around the world- LatinAmerica, etc. o Increasingly US occupations include many of these professional warriors to make military intervention much easier.  Who are they accountable to?  Can they be held accountable by US authorities?  Main reason why these forces are being used is because the US does not have enough soldiers to meet its requirements • Probably couldn’t meet those requirements without imposing a draft o The US is increasingly dependent of a military that is understaffed o Depends on high technology in various contexts where this technology is not entirely suited to the needs of the military  Also a means of replacing labor (foot soldiers) with machinery Intelligence Services • Easton vs. Schmitt • Opened government, check and balances vs. the needs of security- secrecy and efficiency • These clash to a great extent • CIA o Prominent member of the intelligence community in the US o Most controversial and most well known o CIA is not the only or the largest intelligence agency in the US o The US has at least 16 intelligence agencies o Intelligence= information o Having accurate information about international developments, the states, etc. is a vital component to any state’s ability to protect themselves o Development of capacities to develop such intelligence operations o OSS (office of strategic services)  CIA grew out of this office  OSS was crucially involved in getting information during WWII of threats to the US  Cryptology, etc. breaking of the “nigma” code of Nazi Germany o CIA is only partially involved in cryptology, surveillance, eavesdropping, etc. o The biggest intelligence agency within the US is the NSA (No Such Agency/National Security Agency) created in 1952  NSA since 1970’s has been required to get warrants for any eavesdropping activity onAmericans  Foreign Intelligence SurveillanceAct (FISA) • Acknowledged claim by NSA that eavesdropping was by necessity • Needed to act in secret to gain access to people’s communications • FISA created a court that would allow the NSA to do so without having to go though regular court proceedings for warrants o Could provide NSA with warrants within 24 hours o Cryptology o Breaking of codes o Eavesdropping o SIGNIT (Signals Intelligence)  All have employed large #’s of people  Expanding ability to engage in eavesdropping, etc.  Creating a ‘super computer’ to increase abilities o National Recognizance Office (NRO)  Photographic intelligence • Traditionally supplied by spy planes • Now supplied by surveillance drones o Defense IntelligenceAgency  Capacity to duplicate the capacity of other intelligence agencies  Further continuation of the overall process  Each of the branches of the defense department has their own intelligence agencies  Intelligence organizations of various military branches  The state department- bureau of intelligence and research • Much of the rest of the intelligence capacity of the US emerged from this  Bureau of criminal investigation  The Red Scare • Rounding up of communists after the communist revolution • After WWI and in 1920s • After establishment of FBI became better known in 1920’s and 1930’s of their role in going after organized crime • In this context the FBI developed it’s responsibility during prohibition, the mafia, etc.  The FBI is of interest in foreign policy because in modern Europe the FBI has been involved in rounding up communists but also in the realm of terrorism  Intelligence is only one part of 4 divisions within the CIA • Other three are o 1.Administration o 2. Director of Operations (the national clandestine services)  Each intelligence agencies are bureaucracies with their own self-interests, funding goals, etc.  Need to prove one’s self useful  Providing decision makers with information that appears to be useful to them • Problem of stove-piping o Individual pieces of intelligence tend to not go though processes embedded but make way straight from the discoverers to the people that make decisions by passing many other important players • Office of special plans o Produces intelligence that lead to speech by Collin Powell to UN o  Cherry picking • Choosing reports that are most relevant to the policy people are trying to implement • This explains why intelligence has been a dismal failure in the US • Beginning of 1989 o Not a single agency of the US government had the vaguest clue that the soviet union was about to collapse o The intended purpose was to gather as much info on the soviets as possible o This shows the failures within the system o 9/11 is another example of how information can be false/misleading or misunderstood o Intelligence failures of 9/11 and many conspiracies lead to the creation of the office of homeland security  Customs, etc. was transferred from treasury to homeland security  Transportation safety administration was taken out of department of transportation and moved to homeland security  The secret service, those who protect the president were also moved  This created one large bureaucracy to protect homeland security  The problem is that these don’t include the NSA, CIA, FBI, etc.  So instead of simplifying they further complicated the process because they added one extra layer to the problem • National Clandestine Service o CIA and director of operations were created through national security act of 1947 o Operations are to manipulate foreign elections, which they have attempted to do in numerous different contexts o Manipulation of elections from aftermath of WWII where US was concerned that western Europe would be over-run by elected socialist and communist governments  Tainted through cooperation with Nazis o Establishment of Christian democracy and Christian democratic policies  Won elections in Italy and Germany and dominated politics until the 1960s in these countries • United Food Company • Politicization of Intel  Overthrow and de-stabilization of governments • The crisis of Iran during 1950s • When Iran’s first elected government who was reformist, not communist, main policy was to try to bring Iranian oil industry under national control o Was being controlled by Anglo-Persian oil company  Became British Petroleum then Beyond Petroleum (BP)  Assassinations by the CIA • Rene Schneider  Co-Intel Pro scandal  Civil rights, black panthers, anti-war movements, etc.  The CIA and MK-ultra • Involved experiments with psychological warfare POL326Y Lecture June 4/2013 CIA, etc. cont. • The CIA which was formed in 1947 operated with very few restrictions o During the period of it’s creation up until the 1970s.  Intelligence circles this is known as the ‘good ol days’  Activities of the CIA began in places like Iran and Guatemala but the origins of the CIA, etc. are from the struggle against communist in south eastAsia  Closing days of WWII until the Chinese revolution o Golden triangle  Source of most of the opiates and heroin in 1950-70  Evidence that various front companies operated by the CIA were involved in under the table heroin trades  Non-coincidental that these communist countries became the area of the hardcore drug trade  The shipping of drugs out of this region diminished over time  The next major hot spot for drugs became the cocaine trade in S.America • This coincided with the end of the Vietnam war  1980s heroin made a huge comeback • It was now supplied byAfghanistan • The evidence for this is certain • The Taliban eradicated all of the poppy field in Afghanistan in the later 1990s to end the drug trade • This again changed with the invasion of the US again in the 2000s • the anti-communists in Afghanistan were heavily financed by the drug trade  After math of the collapse of the soviet union  Covert activities need to remain covert  Budgeting needs to be secret, etc.  Congress has exercised oversight of the CIA and has tried to limit the CIA to activities which are more within their preference • The CIA then needs to look for other funding resources  There was a general anti-communist consensus throughout congress  Congress assumed that the president was authorized to do whatever was necessary to prevent communism and gave the president essentially a black check to deal with communism as he saw fit  President Ford issued an executive order stating that the US would no longer be involved in the assassination of foreign leaders • Until the CIA was again let off the leash in the aftermath of 9/11 o Many have argued that the ‘good ol days’ have returned and now the CIA is again involved in assassinations and the over-throwing of governments o Once again is not being over-seen by congress in the way that it was. o Church and Pike Committees  Set up in the senate and house of representatives to investigate the activities of the CIA  Over sight by congress of the CIA continued under the Bush and Obama administrations • Very limited (gang of 8)) • Briefed on the activities of the CIA by the CIA but during these briefings they cannot take notes and cannot ask questions • CIA has been expanded to a considerable extend o They have developed a considerable pera-military capacity that they previously did not have (Drone Program) o Pera-military aspect of the CIA o Overlap between military and the CIA o The use of drones o • Foreign Economic Policy o Economics is a crucial component to foreign policy o Economic interests in the US are one of the key driving forces shapingAmerican foreign policy- including it’s over-all orientation o The involvement in WWI essentially took the US out of the great depression because the US established economic ties through domestic manufacturing companies  This was a move the US couldn’t reverse • These negotiations led to the Bretton Wood’s system o Retreat in New Hampshire where world leaders met in order to negotiate these matters o Refers to the US $ becoming the key reserve currency in the international system o The establishment of the 3 key institutions  1. IMO  2. World Bank  3. GATT, later replaced by WTO o All of these reflect the free-market ethos of the US o This eliminated individual trade blocks and opened the way for general trade between all countries o This replaced the monopoly of the colonial power over trade o This also allowed the US to have easy access to these markets o The nature of these bureaucracies promoted open free markets and opened free trade within markets o World Bank  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development • To aid in the reconstruction of Western Europe • This was vital to the US because it was understood by US policy makers that an unstable depressed Europe would be more easily influenced by communism than a stable, wealthy Europe • If the US didn’t want to go back into depression after war they needed to maintain their international exports • Marshall Plan, etc. through NSC-68 • The world bank became a popular institution in western Europe and became more ambitious in proposing that if Germany can over come it’s devastation in a decade that similar transformation should be feasible in the third world • Led to state-centered development • In order to apply to World Bank loans, countries needed to prove that they couldn’t get loans from private sources (banks, etc.) • The World Bank allowed for financing hydro-electric projects around the world o In these sense it functioned as a subsidy to bigAmerican construction firms that carry out projects in third world countries o The IMF was understood to be an institution that would try to maintain the stability of the international system to provide short term loans to countries with balance of payment deficits  Could lead to a devaluation of currencies  Products need to be made more attractive on international markets • Make them cheaper  Lower domestic taxes (taxes increase the cost of production)  Reduce social safety nets, etc.  Lower labor costs o US has played dominant role in international economic policy  This effects foreign relations  Inter-mestic policy • This mostly relates to economic policy • Both have domestic and international aspects • The problem of coordination o There is a vast array of different bureaucracies involved in the making of economic policy o There are a vast number of agencies that are involved in the US economics both domestically and internationally o In the 19 cent. US went through a transition where economics was highly important- this lead to the other sectors (military, etc.) to be lower orders of concern, this changed in the 1930s o This again changed in the after math of the collapse of the USSR  This meant that the US faced no real national security threats  This threatened military budgets, etc.  The defense department wanted nothing to do with the War on Drugs, etc.  The War on Drugs then became a means of becoming more involved in the drug trade in Colombia, etc.  This turn is most noticeable in Bush Sr. administration • He was extremely successful as a president in foreign policy aspects • He was exceptional as a US president because he was not a foreign policy novice • He had been involved in foreign policy for numerous years prior to becoming the president  International economic policy reversed foreign deficits  US was in a much better economic state when Clinton left office in 2001 than it was when he took office in 1993 POL326Y Lecture June 5/2013 Economics cont. • Foreign economic bureaucracy o 1. Foreign policy establishment and various foreign economic bureaucracies have similar dynamic to the CIA, defense department, etc.  They have an alternative agenda  Main agenda= the expansion ofAmerican trade  Expansion of free-market ethos  Foreign policy of the US toward china is very much schizophrenic in this regard  Many aspects • Pension for deregulation • General idea of the free market ethos (market functions best when it is least regulated) o Led to de-regulation of the banking industry within the US  Structural adjustment programs • Devaluation of the currency • Privatization of state assets • Lowering of taxes • Cutting government spending • Encouraging foreign direct investment in failing economies • Opening domestic markets (elimination of protectionism) • Interest rate liberalization o Determined by supply and demand of credit not by state policy o US has strongly criticized the Chinese government for under-valuing it’s currency and making it’s product’s cheaper world-wide  1960 the US invested 85.6 billion in foreign economies and foreigners invested 40.9 billion in the US  By 2007 the US invests 17 trillion in foreign economies and foreign economies invested 20 trillion into the US  By 2010 us invests 20 trillion and foreign investment 22 trillion  US budget deficit has increased tremendously • 2008 o Stood at 410 billion o US debt 9,7 trillion Elections and Groups • US is unique in the influences played by elections and interest groups in US politics and US foreign policy • Elections o Elections have no impact on US foreign policy o Politics stops at the water’s edge  Means that foreign policy in an idealized form is in defense of the national interest  National interest unifies the US • Effects everyone equally  There is therefore neither party that is going to depart from this national interest  Politics therefore ends at the waters edge  Elections from this point of view are irrelevant in this regard  There is a large amount of continuity from one administration to another  Another reason why elections don’t have big impact is historical • The current environment is different from the norm throughout American history • This has to do with the nature of US political parties • US constitutional system was not created with political parties in mind o James Madison fed. 51 states that purpose of US constitution was as much as possible to thwart the development of political parties  To prevent their development or their gaining of strength  “Factions” were a threat to republican forms of government • Such groups are not problematic if they represent a small minority but become problematic if they represent a large majority of the population • Nature of the democratic party historically o Friendly toward labor and minorities o From the new deal on the Democratic Party consisted on very progressive politicians from the north, favored civil rights, the union etc.  And segregationist conservative racists in the south  Schizophrenia within a single party  Foreign policy does however have a large effect on elections in terms of presidents seeking re-election  Foreign policy is what resulted in the failure of Jimmy Carter’s re-election in 1980 • Collapse of the samosa dynasty in Nicaragua • Issues in Cuba • Collapse of the Shah government in Iran o Democrats vs. republicans in regards to multilateralism  Bush Administration publically recalling the signature on the treaty of Rome  Authorization for the use of force inAfghanistan in the UN during the aftermath of 9.11  Attempted to get UN approval for the US invasion of Iraq • Failed to do so and went ahead anyways  Bush administration was very opened to using the UN and using other multi-lateral approaches to gain US goals  US did not unilaterally intervene in Libya for example  Dates back to the earliest moves of the US • Wilson’s concept of the league of nations • Multi-literalisms • International organizations to stabilize the international system  Bi-partisanship in foreign policy  Elections have also resulted in electoral re-alignments or electoral cycles • The new deal realignment o Brought democrats into dominance until the 1960s o Followed by a response by the republican party as a permanent minority in the US system of government and thus adopted the southern strategy o Interest Groups  US is rather unique as a political system not only in terms of their interesting party politics and elections but through interest groups  Domestic politics have a significant influence by interest groups and so does foreign policy  The US government- Lobbying • Lobbying= talking to members of the senate during in the lobby during recesses of meetings to help to influence their decisions o Provides citizens with numerous access points in which they can have an influence on policy o If one wants to influence a specific policy it is more important to focus not on elections but times between elections o Congress offers enormous access o K-street firms o Revolving door of politics in regards to favored interest in terms of the ability to influence policy o There is lots of easy access to decision makers o Executive branch  K-street firms sell their ability to make access to key influencers  US foreign policy can be influenced by these lobbying campaigns  Key lobby groups that have had large impact on foreign policy • China-Lobby o Does not consist of ChineseAmericans but rather is a lobby that consists of business leaders with a strong interest with gaining access to the Chinese market • Cuba-Lobby o Origins are similar to the China-Lobby o Emerged after Cuban revolution o Unlike the China lobby the Cuba lobby consist of many Cuban exiles (CubanAmericans) with interest to restoring their property rights that were confiscated during the Cuban revolution o Advocate for confrontational policy toward Cuban from the US o Not really taken seriously, especially during the cold war o Cuban Lobby is concentrated where Cuban exiles are concentrated (Florida) o Florida is a crucial swing state in every single presidential election • Israel-Lobby POL326Y Lecture Tuesda
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