POLB90H - Final Examination Study Guide.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Judith Teichman

POLB90H Final Examination Study GuidePart A Key Terms Franz Fanon Franz Fanon 19251961 Black psychiatrist from Martinique Involved in the Algerian struggle for independence from France Wrote oThe Wretched of the Earth oBlack Skin White Masks Franz FanonoObserved the psychological impact of colonial ruleoAware of the fact that colonial rule had had harmful consequences in terms of the thinking of the colonizedoEspecially true of the elites educated in the west leading struggles for independence within colonial societyoSolution violent revolutionary struggleoElites that came to power and think in western ways and remain allies with western countriesWhat has been the role of the native intellectual in decolonization according to Fanon Confronted with the native intellectual who decides to make an aggressive response to the colonialist theory of precolonial barbarism colonialism will react only slightly and still less because the ideas developed by the young colonized intelligentsia are widely professed by specialists in the mother country It is in fact a commonplace to state that for several decades large numbers of research workers have in the main rehabilitated the African Mexican and Peruvian civilizations The passion with which native intellectuals defend the existence of their national culture may be a source of amazement but those who condemn this exaggerated passion are strangely apt to forget that their own psyche and their own selves are conveniently sheltered behind a French or German culture which has given full proof of its existence and which is uncontestedBut it has been remarked several times that this passionate search for a national culture which existed before the colonial era finds its legitimate reason in the anxiety shared by native intellectuals to shrink away from that Western culture in which they all risk being swamped Because they realize they are in danger of losing their lives and thus becoming lost to their people these men hotheaded and with anger in their hearts relentlessly determine to renew contact once more with the oldest and most precolonial springs of life of their people Perhaps unconsciously the native intellectuals since they could not stand wonderstruck before the history of todays barbarity decided to back further and to delve deeper down and let us make no mistake it was with the greatest delight that they discovered that there was nothing to be ashamed of in the past but rather dignity glory and solemnityThe native intellectual who decides to give battle to colonial lies fights on the field of the whole continent The past is given back its value Culture extracted from the past to be displayed in all its splendor is not necessarily that of his own countryThe native intellectual who has gone far beyond the domains of Western culture and who has got it into his head to proclaim the existence of another culture never does so in the name of Angola or of Dahomey The culture which is affirmed is African culture In Africa the native literature of the last twenty years is not a national literature but a Negro literatureColonialism has made the same effort in these regions to plant deep in the minds of the native population the idea that before the advent of colonialism their history was one which was dominated by barbarism The struggle for national liberty has been accompanied by a cultural phenomenon known by the name of the awakening of Islam The passion with which contemporary Arab writers remind their people of the great pages of their history is a reply to the lies told by the occupying power The great names of Arabic literature and the great past of Arab civilization have been brandished about with the same ardor as those of the African civilizations The Arab leaders have tried to return to the famous Dar El Islam which shone so brightly from the twelfth to the fourteenth centuryWhy is the intellectual unable to perform an effective leadership role in decolonization This historical necessity in which the men of African culture find themselves to racialize their claims and to speak more of African culture than of national culture will tend to lead them up a blind alleyThe native intellectual nevertheless sooner or later will realize that you do not show proof of your nation from its culture but that you substantiate its existence in the fight which the people wage against the forces of occupation No colonial system draws its justification from the fact that the territories it dominates are culturally nonexistent You will never make colonialism blush for shame by spreading out littleknown cultural treasures under its eyes At the very moment when the native intellectual is anxiously trying to create a cultural work he fails to realize that he is utilizing techniques and
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