PAC EXAM NOTES:
1. What is the ability-based approach?
i. Focusing on abilities – what they can vs. what they cant do
2. List 3 ways to ensure the participants can understand you
iii. Eye contact
3. How do you approach, support and guide and individual who is blind?
i. Ask, introduce yourself, offer help, and use their elbow
4. Are guide dogs welcome in public spaces?
5. Who can you contact at the UofT AC for accessibility services?
i. Front desk
6. What can you do to encourage people with disabilities to participate in regular PA?
i. Modify, adjust to interests, make sure they are enjoying it
7. List 5 organizations you can contact for support
i. YMCA, VV, PartcipACTION, OBSA, Parasport
8. List 3 ways to ensure your activities are accessible to the community
i. Transportation, affordable, and friendly to all needs
9. What are 5 ways to ensure inclusivity?
i. Adapt the game, involve all, affordable, accessible, and women’s space
10. What types of accessibility modifications ensure all participation?
i. Rules, type of games and equipment
11. List 10 disabilities
i. Paraplegic, quadriplegic, deaf, MS, blind, autism, CP, intellectual, Parkinson’s, and amputee
12. Describe these disabilities
13. What percent of disabled individuals participate in regular PA?
i. 3 %
14. Who is Rick Hansen and what did he do?
i. Spinal cord injury; wheel chair bound (paraplegic)
ii. Man in Motion world Tour for spinal cord research
15. Who is Terry Fox?
i. Had cancer and lost his leg (became amputee)
ii. Ran across Canada in Marathon of Hope to raise money and awareness for cancer
16. Who are 5 celebrities with disabilities?
i. Terry Fox, Rick Hansen, Oscar Pistorius, Tracey Ferguson, and Bethany Hamilton
17. What is MS?
i. A chronic degenerative, often episodic disease of the central nervous
system marked by patchy destruction of the myelin that surrounds
and insulates nerve fibers, usually appearing in young adulthood and
manifested by one or more mild to severe neural and muscular
impairments, as spastic weakness in one or more limbs, local
sensory losses, bladder dysfunction, or visual disturbances.
18. What is the support for MS?
i. MS Canada, MS Society, and MS international foundation
19. What are 3 symptoms of MS?
i. Fatigue, dizziness and balance issues
20. Name 1 Olympic and 2 Paralympic swimmers in the 2012 games
i. Bret Hayden
ii. Camille Berube and Morgan Bird
21. What is the classification system and how does it work?
i. Swimmers are classified according to the type and extent of their disability. The classification
system allows swimmers to compete against others with a similar level of function.
Swimmers with physical disabilities are allocated a category between 1 and 10, with 1 corresponding to the most severe types of disability. Physical disabilities of Paralympic
swimmers include single or multiple limb loss (through birth defects and/or
amputation), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries (leading to paralysis or disability in limb
coordination), dwarfism, and disabilities, which impair the use of joints. Blind and visually
impaired swimmers compete within separate categories, beingallocated to categories 11, 12
or 13. Category 11 correspondsto totally blind swimmers, while competitors in category 13
have severe but not total visual impairment.Swimmers with mental disabilities compete in
category 14.Numbers are combined with a letter prefix depending on the event type. An "S"
prefix corresponds to freestyle, backstroke and butterfly, while "SB" corresponds
to breaststroke and "SM" to the medley. Hence, a swimmer with severe physical disabilities
competing in backstroke may compete in an S3 event, while a blind swimmer in the medley
would compete in class SM11
22. What is S10?
i. Minimally disabled
23. What is AODA?
i. Accessibility for Ontarians with a Disability Act
24. For AODA what are 5 areas of priority?
iii. Built environment
vii. Communication and information
25. What year does AODA hope to have all “areas”/services in all work or public places?
26. What are 5 barriers that affect participation with disabled people in your program?
i. Cost, transportation, facility, equipment, and rules
27. What are 5 accessibility provisions?
i. Built environment, playing surface, equipment, transportation, sound, and color
28. What is accessible employment?
i. Training, equal opportunities and employee opportunities
29. How do you promote inclusive employment opportunities?
i. Advertising, encouraging no social stigma, accessibility for all, training and equal
30. How do you encourage inclusive customer service?
i. Training staff, volunteers, service animals, good communication, support and low cost
31. How many players are on a sitting Vball team?
32. What is sledge hockey?
i. It is a sport that was designed to allow participants who have a physical disability to play the
game of ice hockey.
ii. Popular in Paralympic games
33. What are two rules of wheel chair Bball?
i. No feet
ii. Cant run into someone chair
34. Can everyone play WC Bball?
35. How many points on a court per WC Bball?
i. 25 points
36. What is OBSA?
i. Ontario blind sports association
37. What are rules to Goal Ball?
i. No cheering
ii. Cant touch eye shades
iii. High ball (no touching landing zone)
iv. Premature throw
v. Delay of game
38. When was goal ball introduced?
i. After the war
ii. For veterans • Posture
• Base of Support (BoS)
• Assessing Posture
39. What are 3 Paralympic winter sports?
i. Sit skiing
• Sagittal Plane iii.rWC Curlingkey
40. Name 5 Paralympic summer sports?
i. Sitted Vball
• Axial Plane Obsii.atTrack and field
iii. Speed swimming
• Coronal Plane Observationall
v. Goal ball
41. What is a sport for partners that use a ramp?
• Describing Motion. Bocceball
42. Whai.spCurlings ice and a reaching pole?
43. What does inclusion mean to you?
i. The action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure
ii. All ages, all abilities, and needs, all accessible and equal
44. What does accessibility mean to you?
i. the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people
as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some
system or entity.
45. Howi.anAdaptive activitiesinue to be applied to inclusion?
ii. Word of mouth/info
46. What is variety village?
i. The goal has been to improve the quality of life of all people, regardless of their abilities. By
offering specialized programs and services, we create a level playing field without barriers,
intimidation or other obstacles. And is dedicated to people of all abilities
47. What are 4 of 9 teams at Variety Village?
ii. Swim teams
iii. Track and field
iv. Weight lifting
48. What are 3 accessibility features of VV?
Anatomic Pi.neHigh ropes, wheel trans, textured floor, unique equipment, all one level, ramps for pools
49. What senses can you work with for programs and equipment?
i. Blind folds
• In anatomical position, GCS axes
and planes define the anatomical
axes and planes:
• Coronal axis = x axis;
coronal plane = xy plane
Anatomic Planes and Axes
• Sagittal plane = z axis
sagittal plane = yz planeon, GCS axes and planes define the anatomical axes
• The axis = y axisanes:
• Coronal axis = x axis; coronal plane= xy plane
axi• Sagittal plane = z axis sagittal plane= yz plane
• Coronal – the crown (across the
head)The axis = y axis axial plane = xz plane
• Coronal – the crown (across the head)
• Sagittal – the arrow (points forward)
• Axial – the axis of the bodyoints forward)
• Axial – the axis of the body
• These planes and axes move with
http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/anatomy-and-physiology-2b.shtml, Sept. 09,
2011 • These planes and axes move with
Anatomic Curves and Angles
• Sagittal plane curves (applies to spine):
n. lordosis, adj. lordotic
spinal curve convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly n.
kyphosis, adj. kyphotic
spinal curve convex posteriorly, concave anteriorly
• Coronal plane angles (applies to spine): Scoliosis – left or right specified as convex side
• Coronal plane angles (applies to extremities):
adj. valgus – distal segment angled away from axis adj. varus – distal
segment angled toward axis
• Axial place curves (applies to spine)
rotoscoliosis – left or right,
specify relative direction of proximal (superior) segment
Posture & Base of Support
– A static position – Used typically, to describe standing and sitting
1. Position of least muscular effort
2. Dependent on “resting” muscle tone and length
Base of Support (BoS)
– The area circumscribed by the outermost points of your contact patch
• E.g.–ifstandingontwo feet, includes the space between your feet
• Contact Patch
– Portion of the body that is in contact with the earth’s surface (i.e. the floor or what ever is supporting you)
Centre of Pressure
• The point on the ground where the “resultant” pressure vector falls
– Your weight (force of gravity on your body) is distributed across your base of support
• Each point in BoS may bear some weight
– Contact pressure = weight / area for each small/tiny area within the base of support
• Make observations in all 3 anatomical planes
Location of CoG
Location of CoP within base of support
Symmetry / Asymmetry
Curves – normal or greater or lesser than “normal”
Sagittal Plane Observation
• Location of CoG and location of CoP over BoS: – Are they centred (on their toes or on their heels)?
– Anterior (in front) –
• Pelvic position
– tilted forward (anteverted - hips typically flexed) or backward
• Spinal curves
– Normal lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis – Common abnormalities:
1. FlatL-spine (nolordorsis);exaggerated lumbarlordosis
2. FlatT-spine; exaggerated thoracickyphosis (hunchorhumpback)
3. Forward head posture (combination of ↑cervico-thoracickyphosis,
↑upper cervical lordosis = “sniffing position”) 4. “Slouched”(forwardhead ,LandT spine flexedorkyphotic
Planes of Observation
1. Difficult to do; standing
over the person or walk
2. Pelvic direction –
as the feet?
3. Spinal curves – rotoscoliosis?
4. Head direction – looking straight forward?
Coronal Plane • Spinal curves
• Left to right asymmetries: – Pelvic obliquity – height of iliac crest above ground; assess with feet together
– Scapular asymmetry –
height of inferior angle of
– Head position – left-right
translation, side bending extremities
Sagittal Plane – axes of rotation along the coronal axis
1. Flexion: distal segment rotates ventral
2. Hyperflexion: flexion beyond 90 degrees
3. Extension: distal segment rotates dorsally from ventral position such that it returns to segment-axes-parallel
4. Hyperextension: distal segment rotates drosaly beyond coronal plane
Axial Plane -AoR the segment axis
• named for movement of the anterior aspect of the rotating segment when started from anatomic position
• internal/medial rotation -anterior aspect of the segment moves medially
• external/lateral rotation –anterior aspect of the segment moves laterally
Coronal Plane -AoR along the sagittal axes
1. abduction: distal segment moves from axis into valgus
2. hyperabduction: abduct beyond 90 degrees
3. adduction: distal segment returns from valgus to axis
4. hyperadduction: adduction beyond axis into varus
Variables of Training
• the total quantity of activity performed in training
• must be quantified and monitored
• Intensity - the qualitative component of work
• a function of neuromuscular activation dictated by:
• speed of performance
• amount of fatigue developed• type of exercise taken
• the frequency at which an athlete performs a series of repetitions of work per unit of time.
• the greater the density of training, the shorter the recovery time between working phases of training
• the degree of sophistication and biomechanical difficulty of a skill
• performance of more complex skills in training can increase training intensity
Repetitions 1. (1-6 reps) appear better for development of max. power
2. (>10 reps.) may be better for muscular endurance
3. (10-15 reps) are shown to enhance high-intensity endurance
4. >20 reps. are shown to enhance low-intensity endurance
5. 1-3 reps. shown to improve power-based adaptations
1. a series of repetitions performed continuously followed by a rest interval
2. minimum of three sets to mazimize strength gains
3. between 4-8 sets to optimize strength gains
Inter-set Rest Intervals
•long enough to allow the clearance of fatigue-inducing substrate, and restoration of force production capacity
• 30 s - 70% of ATP restored
• 3-5 mins - complete ATP restoration
• 2 min. rest - 84% restoration of phosphocreatine (PCr), 4 min. rest - 89% restoration of PCr, 8 min rest
for complete restoration
What impact would this evidence have on force and power generating capacity
versus muscular endurance training regimes?
Order of exercises
• large-mass, multi-joint exercises would be performed early in the training session
• progress to smaller mass, single joint exercises
• the number of times per week a muscle group is trained
• the greater the training frequency, the greater the strength gains
Specificity of Training
– The degree of similarity between the training exercise and the activities used in the sport
– target physiological adaptations, movement patterns or muscle groups specific to the sport/activity
Training that makes sense...
• The more similar the characteristic of the training exercise are to the activity/sport, the greater the transfer of training
effects • Preparatory
– Physiological foundation
– Two sub-phases
– Maximizing competitive capacity
– think about the movement patterns and the primary muscles used in the activ