PSL201Y1 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Robert E. Lee, Ion, Gastrointestinal Tract

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12 Oct 2018
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PSL201Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Kristyn Lee
1
PSL201Y
BASIC HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY AND CELL TRANSPORT
Parts of a Cell
Plasma Membrane
- Phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer
- Hydrophilic head face the cytosol and the extracellular fluid
- Hydrophobic tails face each other
- Cholesterol molecules interfere with hydrophobic interactions between
phospholipid tails
- Causes crystallization of the bilayer thereby decreasing its fluidity
- Membrane proteins are dispersed throughout the bilayer
- Integral membrane proteins maintain contact with both the lipid bilayer and the
aqueous environment
- Transmembrane proteins span the lipid bilayer (e.g. ion channels)
- Others are located only on one side (e.g. G proteins)
- Peripheral membrane proteins are located on the cytosolic surface
- Can be dissociated from membrane and leave it intact
- Membrane carbohydrates covalently bond to membrane lipids or proteins
- With lipids, they form glycolipids
- With proteins, they form glycoproteins
- Function as a protective layer (glycocalyx) that holds cells together and aids in
cell recognition and cell labelling
Nucleus
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Kristyn Lee
2
- Nuclei contain genetic material of the cell, DNA
- DNA exists as thin threads called chromatin
- Surrounded by nuclear envelope
- Consists of two membranes that fuse intermittently
- Leaves nucleus pores that allow selective movement of molecules
- Nucleolus is within the nucleus and serves as the site of synthesis of rRNA
Cytosol
- Gel-like structure that contains enzymes that catalyse specific chemical reactions
- Stores energy in the form of triglycerides or glycogen in masses called inclusions
Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum are flattened sacs with attached ribosomes
- Associated with the synthesis of proteins destined for the plasma membrane or
another organelle
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum consists of tubules with no ribosomes attached
- Site of the synthesis of lipids (triglycerides and steroids)
- Site of storage of calcium ions
Golgi Apparatus
- Consists of membrane-bound flattened sacs called cisternae
- Closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum on cis-face
- Other side faces plasma membrane = trans face
- Processes molecules synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them into
vesicles
Mitochondria
- Bound by two membranes, thus dividing the organelle into two compartments
- Intermembrane space (between membranes)
- Mitochondrial matrix (innermost compartment)
- Inner mitochondrial membrane houses the electron transport chain
- Folded into tubules called cristae to increase surface area
- Most of the cell’s usable energy form, ATP, is produced
Lysosomes
- Contains enzymes that degrade intracellular debris and extracellular debris
- Can be engulfed in the process of endocytosis
Peroxisomes
- Structures similar to lysosomes
- Contain more than 50 enzymes that carry out oxidation and thereby degradation
- Most abundant in the liver and kidney cells
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