study notes for lecture two: endocrine physiology

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8 Mar 2011
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LECTURE TWO: ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY
*endocrine physiology = hormone action
((endocrine system controls body functions))
Æhormones bind to receptors
Æbinding triggers signalling pathways within individual or groups of
cells
Æthe signalling pathways cause changes in cell activity
Æcell activity changes result in body function because cells
communicated with each other and regulate body function
example: growth hormone
Æexercise results in growth hormone secretion
Ægrowth hormone enters blood and binds to growth hormone
receptors on fat cell/adipocytes
Æbinding triggers multiple downstream signalling pathways
Æresults in fat breakdown for muscle energy
Æthis energy supplies the energy demands of exercise
Æbody systems do not exist within themselves
\Æbody systems need to communicate with each other to regulate body function
example: endocrine system and nervous system controls energy balance
*insulin action in the brain lowers liver glucose production in rodents
obesity & diabetes
Æhypo = too little insulin => increased glucose levels, increased appetite
Æresistance = too little effect
INSULIN
Binding Site
Mechanism
Effects
Other considerations
- brain
binds to a receptor in the brain
sends a signal via the efferent vagus that runs
between the brain and liver
o controls glucose production
¾ in diabetes and obesity,
LQVXOLQGRHVQ¶WZRUNDWWKH
level of brain function
- liver
binds to a receptor on the liver
o controls glucose levels by controlling
production in the liver
¾ lowers glucose levels
¾ controls how much you eat
classical endocrine glands
Æpineal
Æhypothalamus
Æpituitary
Æthyroid
Æparathyroid
Æthymus
Æadrenal
Æpancreas
Æovary
Ætestis
Æ*fat/adipocytes (leptin/adiponectin)
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Document Summary

growth hormone enters blood and binds to growth hormone receptors on fat cell/adipocytes. this energy supplies the energy demands of exercise. *endocrine physiology = hormone action ((endocrine system controls body functions)) binding triggers signalling pathways within individual or groups of cells. the signalling pathways cause changes in cell activity. cell activity changes result in body function because cells communicated with each other and regulate body function. \body systems need to communicate with each other to regulate body function example: endocrine system and nervous system controls energy balance. *insulin action in the brain lowers liver glucose production in rodents obesity & diabetes. hypo = too little insulin => increased glucose levels, increased appetite. S binds to a receptor in the brain. S sends a signal via the efferent vagus that runs between the brain and liver. S binds to a receptor on the liver. Effects: controls glucose production, controls glucose levels by controlling production in the liver.

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