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study notes for lecture five: adrenal gland

5 Pages
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Department
Physiology
Course Code
PSL201Y1
Professor
Doug Mac Kay

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LECTURE FIVE: ADRENAL GLAND
\Æthere is an inner layer = adrenal medulla, and an outer layer = adrenal cortex
players
Æepinephrine = catecholamines
::acute stress response
::rapid effect for preparing fight v. flight
Æcortisol = glucocorticoid
::chronic stress hormone
::longer time to be released, but sustained/chronic effect
::has the ability to regulate glucose levels
ÆCRH = cortiotropin-releasing hormone
::brain neurotransmitter
::made from the adrenal gland
ÆACTH = trophic hormone
::melanocortin family
::all came from the same precursor gene (POMC ± gives ACTH and
upon splicing, can give multiple forms of the hormone)
*adrenal medulla = modified sympathetic ganglia
Æcatecholamines
Æepinephrine
*adrenal cortex = steroid factory
Æglucocorticoids {cortisol}
Æmineralcorticoids {aldosterone}
Æsex steroids {testosterone}
Æadrenal gland is next to kidney
*aldosterone /mineralcorticoid = regulates mineral levels (Na+/K+)
*testosterone = in females, goes to ovaries and because of the presence of aromatose, creates estrogen
recall: epinephrine = adrenaline Æfight v. flight response
\Æprovides body with energy for an acute stress response
Ædifferent responses based on which receptors are activated
recall: sex steroids = modified from cholesterol by enzymes in certain tissues/cells
::testosterone movement to ovary + aromatase = estrogen
*Æsex hormones are derived from steroids
www.notesolution.com
((specific steroids synthesized in specific adrenal cortex zones))
region synthesis
medulla catecholamines
zona reticularis sex hormones
cortex zona fasciulata glucocorticoids
zona glomerulosa aldosterone
capsule
ADRENAL GLAND EFFECTS
Hormone
Mechanism
Function & Effect
Other Considerations
aldosterone
- recallLW¶VDVWHURLGKRUPRQHDQGDSURSHUW\RI
steroids is diffusibility
- (1) will diffuse into the cell and bind to its
receptor
- (2) favours movement of the complex to bind to
the responsive element of aldosterone, found on
DNA
- binding of complex does require a few co-
activators because binding of aldosterone to
receptor is insufficient to turn on the expression
of appropriate genes
leads to overproduction of genes
responsible for forming K+
channel or ATPase Na+/K+ pump
once the synthesis of these genes is
elevated, undergoes post-
transciptional modifications to give
proper channel and pump activity
because of the presence and
elevation of the quantity of the
pumps, the next flow of minerals
from the external environment ±
the lumen, to the internal
environment ± the blood, is a net
increase of [sodium]
o steroid hormone
o mineralcorticoid = regulates Na+ and
K+ levels in the blood
o the use of co-activators presents
multiple site for regulation, initiation
and inhibition of the rate of target
protein synthesis
o knowing the effect, can predict that
when there is a low [sodium] in the
body there will be a release of
aldosterone to maintain mineral
homeostasis
o the influx of sodium from the lumen
is done through the exchange of K+
and ATP
o this sodium gradient must be kept
constant so K+ channel must
continually excrete K+ in the lumen
www.notesolution.com

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Description
LECTURE FIVE: ADRENAL GLAND there is an inner layer = adrenal medulla, and an outer layer = adrenal cortex players epinephrine = catecholamines CRH = cortiotropin-releasing hormone ::acute stress response ::brain neurotransmitter ::rapid effect for preparing fight v. flight ::made from the adrenal gland cortisol = glucocorticoid ACTH = trophic hormone ::chronic stress hormone ::melanocortin family ::longer time to be released, but sustainedchronic effect ::all came from the same precursor gene (POMC gives ACTH and ::has the ability to regulate glucose levels upon splicing, can give multiple forms of the hormone) *adrenal medulla = modified sympathetic ganglia *adrenal cortex = steroid factory catecholamines glucocorticoids {cortisol} epinephrine mineralcorticoids {aldosterone} sex steroids {testosterone} adrenal gland is next to kidney + + *aldosterone mineralcorticoid = regulates mineral levels (Na K ) *testosterone = in females, goes to ovaries and because of the presence of aromatose, creates estrogen recall epinephrine = adrenaline fight v. flight response provides body with energy for an acute stress response different responses based on which receptors are activated recall: sex steroids = modified from cholesterol by enzymes in certain tissuescells ::testosterone movement to ovary + aromatase = estrogen *sex hormones are derived from steroids www.notesolution.com
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