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study notes for lecture eight: pancreas

5 Pages
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Department
Physiology
Course Code
PSL201Y1
Professor
Doug Mac Kay

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LECTURE EIGHT: PANCREAS (ENDOCRINE)
\Æunqiue organ = has endocrine and exocrine portions
*Æwhen we discuss glucose metabolism and regulation, refer to pancreatic endocrine-made hormones
Q: which pancreatic hormone is anabolic, which is catabolic, which is negative?
Æinsulin is anabolic, favours energy storage
Æglucagon is catabolic, favours breakdown of energy storage to release nutrients (triglycerides Îfatty acids, glycogen Îglucose, protein ÎAAs)
Æsomatostatins are negative, they inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion
*metabolism = sum of all chemical reactions in the body
Æit is complex, stepwise and balanced
Æmost of the pathways are tightly regulated in a stepwise fashion so there are multiple intervention points
metabolic state I v. metabolic state II
Æfed Æfasted
Æabsorptive Æpost-absorptive
Æanabolic (glucose) Æcatabolic (glucose, fat)
*key hormone is insulin
EDVDOPHWDEROLFUDWH%05 DQLQGLYLGXDO¶VHQHUJ\H[SHQGLWXUHZKHQUHVWLQJFRPIRUWDEOHWHPSHUDWXUHIDVWHG
*energy balance = control caloric intake and exercise
Æplasma glucose concentration is the most closely regulated of the three nutrient pools because glucose is the only fuel that the brain can
metabolize, except in times of starvation
storage
carbohydrates fat protein
glycogen triglyceride muscle
liver, muscle adipose tissue
glucose fatty acid + glycerol amino acids
((pathways))
www.notesolution.com
*glycogenolysis = breakdown of glycogen to glucose, stimulated under catabolic conditions
*glycogenesis = formation of glycogen from glucose
JO\FRO\VLVEUHDNGRZQRIJOXFRVHGRHVQ¶WDOZD\VWDNHSODFHLQWKHOLYHUFDQEHLQWLVVXHVPXVFOHVHWF
*gluconeogenesis = formation of glucose, takes place at the liver, increased in fasting conditions
*lipolysis = breakdown of fatty acids from triglycerides to fatty acids + glycerol {also blocked by insulin as it favours formation of storage
molecules)
*lipogenesis = formation of lipids/triglycerides
Æpancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system
Æendocrine gland produces several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin,
\Æhormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream
\Æparacrines are hormones that are released that affect only target cells nearby the release site
Æexocrine gland, secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that pass to the small intestine.
\Æenzymes are secreted into ducts that lead to the external environment
\Æthese enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the chyme.
\Ærelease *zymogen ± inactive enzyme precursor that requires a biochemincal change to become active (change reveals active site or changes
conformation to reveal active site)
\Æzymogen is released to prevent the enzymes from digesting proteins in the cells in which they are synthesized
Æthe part of the pancreas with endocrine function is made up of ~1 million cell clusters ± islets of Langerhands
\Æislets of Langerhans consist of 4 main cell types classified by their secretion products
::alpha-cells secrete glucagon ::beta-cells secrete insulin ::delta-cells secrete somatostatin ::PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide
endocrine pancreas
Æregulator of metabolism
ÆWKHUHDUHW\SHVRIFHOOVLQWKHHQGRFULQHSDQFUHDVZLWKZKLFKZHZLOOFRQFHUQRXUVHOYHV./-cells)
Æexocrine (acinar) cell
-cell .-cell /-cell
Æforms insulin from Æforms and Æforms and secretes
pro-insulin releases glucagon negative hormones: somatostatins
Æreleases C-peptide + active \Æhas paracine function to inhibit
insulin insulin release and glucagon function
INSULIN V. GLUCAGON
insulin & glucagon signal target cells to change gears between feeding and fasting metabolism
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Description
LECTURE EIGHT: PANCREAS (ENDOCRINE) unqiue organ = has endocrine and exocrine portions *when we discuss glucose metabolism and regulation, refer to pancreatic endocrine-made hormones Q: which pancreatic hormone is anabolic, which is catabolic, which is negative? insulin is anabolic, favours energy storage glucagon is catabolic, favours breakdown of energy storage to release nutrients (triglycerides fatty acids, glycogen glucose, protein AAs) somatostatins are negative, they inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion *metabolism = sum of all chemical reactions in the body it is complex, stepwise and balanced most of the pathways are tightly regulated in a stepwise fashion so there are multiple intervention points metabolic state I v. metabolic state II fed fasted absorptive post-absorptive anabolic (glucose) catabolic (glucose, fat) *key hormone is insulin -,8,O209,-4OL.7,90 # ,3L3L;L:,O80307J0[503L9:70ZK037089L3J.421479,-O0902507,9:701,890 *energy balance = control caloric intake and exercise plasma glucose concentration is the most closely regulated of the three nutrient pools because glucose is the only fuel that the brain can metabolize, except in times of starvation storage carbohydrates fat protein glycogen triglyceride muscle liver, muscle adipose tissue glucose fatty acid + glycerol amino acids ((pathways)) www.notesolution.com
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