PSL300H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 131 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2018
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PSL300H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1- Cells of the Nervous System
3 Types of Cells
Neurons
Structural Features:
Cytoplasmic Features:
Neuron types & shapes
1. Neurons (excitable, for information transfer)
2. Glia (non-excitatory, for neural function support to increase
information transfer efficiency)
3. Supporting cells
a. Blood vessels, endothelium, fibroblasts, smooth muscle &
microglia
b. Not developed as part of the NS
- Highly metabolically active (rapid metabolism)
o Energy hog
o 2% of body mass, uses 20% O2, produces 17% CO2
- Death = cessation of brain activity
- Receptive areas:
o Dendrites & cell membrane can all receive signals
- Dendrites:
o Tapers at the periphery
Diameter decreases as it extends out from the soma
o Contains little spines
Increase surface area for synaptic transmission
Environmentally dependent
Enriched environments greater # of spines
Affects different neurons in different areas
Can have thousands of spines / cell
- Axon:
o Only ever 1 axon & accompanying axon hillock
Axon hillock: the branch-point from the soma, from
which the axon extends
o 99% of cytoplasmin the axon
Extremely long axonsrequires huge energy sources
for long-distance transport
o Contains Kinesin (transport to the terminal) & Dynein (return
back to soma)
1. High amounts of mitochondria (high metabolic activity)
2. High amounts of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (high amounts of
protein synthesis)
3. Well-developed golgi apparatus (packaging the proteins)
4. Nucleus w/ prominent nucleolus
I. Unipolar cells
a. Projections branch from 1 single point on soma
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Histological Sections
NT Release sites:
Features in
transmission
a. Rare in vertebrates
i. Found in cerebellum
II. Pseudo-unipolar cells
a. Projections branch from 1 single point on soma
i. Projections branch out into 2 projections
ii. 1 to Central NS, 1 to Peripheral NS
b. Found in dorsal root ganglion (sensory inputs)
III. Bipolar cells
a. 2 projections from the soma
b. Found in sensory neurons
i. Olfactory & auditory
IV. Multipolar cells
a. Many projections branching out from soma
i. Often very long projections
b. Most common neuron cell type
i. Interneurons, Motoneurons, cortical neurons
- Light microscopy
o Visualizes: Cell body & nucleus
Owl’s eye nucleus
o Paler stainsglial cells
o White area surrounding neuronsneuropil
o Highlights the cytoplasm & positive/negative fractions of the
cell
- Electron microscopy
o Visualizes: cell body & roughly cellular components
Cell bodyslightly lighter gray
- Golgi stain
o Visualizes: entire cell & Projections
o ½ mm thick slices
o Only 1% of cells in brain take up the stain (they aren’t as
sparse as they look on the slide)
2 types:
- True synapse
o NT released @ 1 region (terminal bouton)
o Most CNS neurons & neuromuscular junctions
- Volume transmission
o NT released along the length of the axon
o Found in glandular communication
Synapses onto a gland
Ex. Postganglionic autonomic neurons
o In both PNS & CNS
In CNSthought to underlie mood disorders
- Common in both true synapse transmission & volume transmission
1. Expansion
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Document Summary

Cytoplasmic features: neurons (excitable, for information transfer, glia (non-excitatory, for neural function support to increase information transfer efficiency, supporting cells, blood vessels, endothelium, fibroblasts, smooth muscle & microglia, not developed as part of the ns. Highly metabolically active (rapid metabolism: energy hog, 2% of body mass, uses 20% o2, produces 17% co2. Receptive areas: dendrites & cell membrane can all receive signals. Dendrites: tapers at the periphery, diameter decreases as it extends out from the soma, contains little spines. Increase surface area for synaptic transmission: environmentally dependent, enriched environments greater # of spines, affects different neurons in different areas, can have thousands of spines / cell. Neuron types & shapes: unipolar cells, projections branch from 1 single point on soma. Histological sections: rare in vertebrates, found in cerebellum. Pseudo-unipolar cells: projections branch from 1 single point on soma, projections branch out into 2 projections, 1 to central ns, 1 to peripheral ns, found in dorsal root ganglion (sensory inputs)

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