PSL301H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 67 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2018
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PSL301H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSL301 Resp Lecture 1:
Q: List:
Gas exchange in/out of the lungs, regulates blood pH via CO2, defense against inhaled pathogens. We
defend against inhaled pathogens thru mucous, nose hairs, mucous elevator, macrophages, antibodies
that are secreted al the way thru the respiratory tract. The final function is vocalization.
Q: label:
At the top its larynx, then trachea, then bronchai (primary( then brunchus, then at the bottom its
bronchioles.
Review:
C.
Inspiration:
We change the volume of the lungs by changing the volume of the thorasic cavity. When outside
pressure is the same as inside the lungs, theres no air movement. If we increase volume of the lungs,
then and moves into the lungs because outside pressure is greater than alveolar pressure. At sea level,
760mmHg is the air pressure. By convention, we call this 0. We need to make the inside pressure slightly
lower than 760mmhg.
Expiration:
We need to cause the lung volume to be slightly less, we have to raise it by 1 to move the air out. We do
this by relaxing the diapgram.
What:
The main muscle is the diaphragm. This is controlled by the phrenic nerve. The top 3 muscles are
important for raising up the ribs allowing for move volume. The external intercostals were thought to
have a role in passive breathing but thry r important in active breathing.
External:
The rbs moving up allow us to increase the volume.
Expiration:
All we have to do is relax the inspiratory muscles. All we need to do is relax the diaphragm and the
voume decreases. If we want to have forced expiration, we have to contract the internal intercostals
which are found in the ribs and contract the abdominal muscles. This pushes up against the thoracic
cavity which decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity.
Recall:
There is a membrane that lines the lungs which is vicerapleural and the parietal pleura lines the walls.
Pleual cavity is filled full of fluid which holds 15mLs. Theres a pressure in the leural cavity and its always
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less than the atm pressure. Its lesss than the pressure in the lungs. Each cavity is a separate entity, they
ae’t otiouos.
Case:
1) His intraavelola pressures would be +-1. His intrapleural pressures would be less than 760 and
less than atm pressure. It would also be less than intraalveolar pressure.
2) The pleural membrane keeps the lungs from collapsing. The difference in pressure, the low
pressure in the pleural cavity means the lungs stay inflated. We get these pressures because the
chest walls want to expand outwatds and the lungs want to collapse inwards. These 2 opposing
forces cause the inner pressure to be less than the atm pressure/alveolar pressure.
3) We puncture the pleural cavity and the atm air moves in which is the same pressure as the
outside and avlveolar pressure, so the lung collapses.
4) We close up the hole, we put a wet gauze on which seals up the hole temporarily. We suck out
as much air as we can.
Presure changes:
500mL of air is moving in to our lungs at each breath. We have an increase in lung volume during
inspiration and its expelled during expiration. The total volume in lungs it around 4500 or 5000mL. We
are only moving a very small amount of air into the lungs with each breath. Intrapleural pressure is
negative because its always lower than alveolar pressure.
Review:
B.
Lecture 2:
Review:
A.
How do the:
Lung compliance is how easy it is to the lungs to change volume with a given pressure, how easy it is for
the lungs to expand. If we have high elasticity or high surface tension, it decreases the lungs compliance.
Airway resistance Is influenced by type of flow and airway diameter.
Factors:
Our lungs have elastic proteins in them, these fibers are found in the walls of the alveoli.
Elasticity:
Left allows for a big change in volume with a certain breath. Something elastic is easy to stretch and
easy to coe ak. Copliat is easy to steth ut does’t otat ak. Empysema is too much air in
the lungs and its caused by the destruction of the alveoli.
Lung:
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Document Summary

Gas exchange in/out of the lungs, regulates blood ph via co2, defense against inhaled pathogens. We defend against inhaled pathogens thru mucous, nose hairs, mucous elevator, macrophages, antibodies that are secreted al the way thru the respiratory tract. At the top its larynx, then trachea, then bronchai (primary( then brunchus, then at the bottom its bronchioles. We change the volume of the lungs by changing the volume of the thorasic cavity. When outside pressure is the same as inside the lungs, theres no air movement. If we increase volume of the lungs, then and moves into the lungs because outside pressure is greater than alveolar pressure. We need to make the inside pressure slightly lower than 760mmhg. We need to cause the lung volume to be slightly less, we have to raise it by 1 to move the air out. The top 3 muscles are important for raising up the ribs allowing for move volume.

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