PSL301 Final Exam Test Study Sheet.docx

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9 Apr 2012
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PSL301 1st Final Exam Study Sheet
P a g e | 1
Blood
Definitions:
Hematocrits Formed elements; blood cells and the like
Erythrocytes Red blood cells
Leukocytes White blood cells
Thrombocytes Platelets
Phagocytes Leukocytes that can engulf things via phagocytosis
Granulocytes Leukocytes that release cytokines
Cytokines Released molecules, eg Proteins, that act to signal/cause infammation
Plasma
o Proteins made by liver
Albumin (60%)
Colloid pressure and carrier
Globulins (35%)
Clotting factors, enzymes and carriers
for antibodies
Fibrinogen (4%)
Forms fibrin for blood clotting
Hematocrits
o In embryo these cells come from: Yolk sac, liver, spleen, bone marrow
o After birth only from bone marrow
Hematopoiesis
o 75% hematopoietic stem cell become erythrocytes, 25% become leukocytes
o Erythroblast Reticulocyte erythrocyte
o Megakaryocyte breaks down into platelets
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PSL301 1st Final Exam Study Sheet
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o Colony stimulating factors from endothelial cells and white blood cells regulate
process via cytokinesis
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor induces creation of neutrophil
rather than monocyte
Red blood cells
o No nucleus
o Anaerobic metabolism
o Life span 120 days
Erythropoiesis
o Regulated by erythropoietin synthesized in liver and kidneys in response to low
oxygen
o Nucleus pinches off nomoblast to form retiulocyte which matures to erythrocyte
Red blood cell removal
Bilirubin secreted by liver in bile and by kidneys as urine
o Bilirubin causes jaundice
Due to high turnover of red blood cells
Liver cannot remove bilirubin or too much is absorbed from intestines
Treatment with blue light breaks it down
Anemia
o Too little hemoglobin
o Caused by
Destruction of stem cells via drugs and radiation
Inadequate nutrients: iron, folic acid, Vitamin B12
Low erythropoietin
Polycythemia
o Too much hemoglobin
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PSL301 1st Final Exam Study Sheet
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o Caused by
Abnormal erythrocyte precursors
Low oxygen delivery
Immune System
Definitions:
Opsonin Coats pathogens to promote phagocytes to engulf
Diapedesis Movement of phagocytes through endothelia
Physical barriers (skin, mucous, acid, lysozyme)
Innate Immunity
o Rapid and non specific
o Phagocytes
Can move through endothelial cells of blood vessels via diapedesis
Chemotaxis helps it locate pathogens
Chemotaxins from bacterial toxins, cytokines or tissue injury
products
Engulfs via phagocytosis
Toll receptors on phagocyte bind to markers on pathogen or
antibodies on pathogen
o Antibody is opsonin
Antigen digested in lysosome and antigen fragments are displayed on cell
surface
Neutrophils make up 50-70% of white blood cells
Release cytokines that cause fever and inflammation
Macrophages and dendritic cells
Derived from monocytes and reside in tissues
o Natural killer (NK) cells
Kill cells infected with virus or are cancerous
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