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Study Guide

[PSY100H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (111 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
PSY100H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology chapter 1
1.1
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior, thought, and experience, and
how they can be affected by physical, mental, social, and environmental
factors.
The scientific method is a way of learning about the world through collecting
observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to
make predictions.
oInvolves interaction between hypothesis testing and construction of
theories.
A hypothesis is a testable prediction about processes that can be observed
and measured.
oCan be supported or rejected
Pseudoscience is an idea that is presented as science but does not actually
utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure.
Theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations also generates
new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
oTheories are general principles or explanation of some aspect of the
world.
oBuilt from hypothesis that are repeated tested and confirmed  self-
correcting science
oMust be falsifiable
Theories are not same thing as opinions or beliefs
All theories are not equally plausible
good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true.
Biopsychosocial model is explaining behavior as a product of biological,
psychological, and sociocultural factors.
oBiological influences on our behavior involve brain structures and chemicals,
hormones, external substances such as drugs.
oPsychosocial influence our memories, emotions and personalities.
Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific
information  read & interpret new terms
oMassed learning: perform all studying in one lengthy session
oSpaced/ distributed learning: shorter study sessions, spread over day
oInvolves 4 skills
Gathering knowledge about the world
Explaining it using scientific terms and concepts
Using critical thinking
Applying and using information
Critical thinking involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when
evaluating the claims of others, and with our won assumptions and beliefs 
can be learnt & developed (conscious effort)
oBe curious
oExamine the nature and source of the evidence
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oExamine assumptions and biases
oAvoid overly emotional thinking
oTolerate ambiguity
oConsider alternative viewpoints and alternative interpretation of the
evidence  maybe incorrect
Principle of parsimony: simplest of all competing explanations of a
phenomenon should be the one we accept
1.2 How Psychology Became A Science
Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through
experience  careful observation
oJohn Locke: Father of empiricism  nurture make up who we are  genetics
is nothing!
Determinism is the belief that all events are governed by lawful cause and
effect relationship  internal & external influence
4 humors & temperaments (create personality) - Hippocrates
1. Blood- sanguine: impulsive pleasure seeking & charismatic
2. Yellow bile- choleric: ambitious energetic & aggressive
3. Black bile- melancholic: independent perfectionist & introverted
4. Phlegm- phlegmatic: quite relaxed content with life
Zeitgeist – German for “spirit of the times”
oa general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time
Materialism (James Mill): humans, and other living beings, are composed of
physical matter  machine lack self-conscious & self-control soul
oLuigi Galvani: electro chemical machine
oJohannes Muller: Specific nerve energies  measure how fast nerve
transmission  scientific 
oPierre Floren: ablation study  train animal; remove brain; recover?
oPaul Broca: localization of language  all ppl who don’t speak well has brain
damage
oKarl Wernicke: Wernicke’s area which speak in sentences that sounds
normal but with unusual wordings
*Start scientific study by mid 1800s
Dualism (Rene): there are properties of humans that are not material 
machine control by a soul
Gustav Fechner studied sensation and perception.
oInterested in the natural world of moving objects and energy.
Hermann von Helmholtz: measure speed of neural impulses
Psychophysics (Ernst Weber) is the study of the relationship between the
physical world and the mental representation of that world.
Willhelm Wundt 1st refer himself as psychologist *introspection “look within”
Charles Darwin: varieties of plants and animals found around the world.
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